Effectiveness of International mediation in achieving peace
Case Study: Pakistan & India Conflict
If international third party mediation has proved successful, at times in past; can it assist in achieving longer term peace in contemporary era?
At present, there are several ongoing armed conflicts around the world. International humanitarian law distinguishes armed conflicts into two categories. The two categories are - International Armed Conflict (IAC) – which is an armed conflict between two or more opposing states, where their militaries could get involved. The only other category where conflicts, which are not between two or more states, come under is – Non International Armed Conflict (NIAC). Non-International Armed Conflicts are those taking place within borders of one state. NIAC can be a civil war, internal riots and tensions or a domestic insurgency involving terrorist groups (ICRC, 2008). Amongst the longest ongoing conflict, is the conflict between two South Asian countries – India and Pakistan. This conflict started short after the separation of two nations in 1947, following end of the British rule over India. The root cause for the conflict is territory, primarily, the Kashmir region. Wallensteen (2015) describes this sort of conflict as “geopolitik conflict”. Pakistan and India have fought three major wars (1948, 1965 and 1971), two major conflicts (1965 Rann of Kutch and 1999 Kargil) and continue to experience countless border clashes every now and again (Mahmood, 2013). Due to wars, India-Pakistan conflict has seen the engagement of a host of mediators including The United Nations, Russia and USA.
This essay is intended to evaluate the “effectiveness of International mediation in achieving peace”. Pakistan and India have been in conflict for almost 69 years, there have been wars, peace talks, various forms of diplomacy and mediation, despite all that, the two South Asian countries have failed to achieve long term peace and bring the lifelong conflict to an end.
In this essay, effectiveness and failures of the mediations facilitated by international parties, will be assessed; the current role of foreign states and supranational organisations in resolving the Kashmir conflict between Pakistan and India will be analysed, as well as the scope and possibility of two countries achieving peace with help of external mediators. References will be made to other similar case studies in order to explain the process and result of similar peace making process and compare it to situation in the Indian Subcontinent.
Formation of the two states
During the process of decolonisation in South Asia, back in 1947 The British colony of India gained its independence. It was then partitioned into two separate entities: the secular nation of India and the predominantly Muslim nation of Pakistan. Pakistan was composed of two non-contiguous regions, East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and West Pakistan, separated by Indian territory. There...