This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Effects Of Attribution Style On Learned Helplessness

1674 words - 7 pages

The reformulated learned helplessness model incorporates the attribution theory, to state an individual’s perceived internal or external control of events affects the expectancy of future outcomes. Internal versus external control, refers to the degree to which a person expects a reinforcement or outcome of an event, is contingent upon their behavior or personal characterizes versus expecting the outcome to be a function of chance or fate, being under the control of others, or utterly unpredictable (Rotter, 1966). Learned helplessness occurs when an individual perceives the future outcome of a situation as uncontrollable, resulting in motivational, cognitive, and emotional deficits (Abramson, Seligman, & Teasdale, 1978).
According to the reformulated learned helplessness hypothesis, there are three dimensions of attribution: internal or external to the self, universal or specific, and stable or unstable across time (Abramson, et al., 1978; Roth, 1980; Weiner, Nierenberg, & Goldstein, 1976). These dimensions interact and are responsible for the different aspects of an individual’s expectations for probable outcomes of future performances. A person who attributes causes to external factors perceives outcomes as being a result of factors within the environment such as fate, chance, or luck. Individuals who predominately attribute external factors to outcomes possess an external attribution style (Rotter, 1966). A person who attributes causes to internal factors perceives outcomes are a result of their own actions, skills, or characteristics within themselves. Individuals who predominately attribute internal factors to outcomes possess an internal attribution style (Rotter, 1966). Attributing uncontrollability of future outcomes to universal factors assumes that performance deficits will exist in a broad range of situations while attributing uncontrollability to specific factors assumes performance deficits will be confined to a specific situation (Abramson, et al, 1978; Alloy, Peterson, Abramson, & Seligman 1984).
Stability refers to the relative permanence associated with an attribution (Abramson, et al, 1978). The stability of an internal or external attribution determines the degree of influence past outcomes exert on expectancies for future outcomes (Abramson, et al., 1978; Weiner, 1985; Weiner, et al, 1976). Internal and external attributions can be combined with stable or unstable attributions and those combined attributes interact with universal and specific attributes (Table 1). For example, internal stable attributes can interact with an individuals’ universal attribute (his or her own intelligence), or specific attributes (his or her own ability) whereas internal unstable attributes can also interact with universal attributes that change over time (I have allergies which make me stupid) or specific attributes that change over time (my allergies interfered with my science project). External stable attributes can interact with either...

Find Another Essay On Effects of Attribution Style on Learned Helplessness

Effects of Ability on Depression Essay

2545 words - 10 pages ). Typically, in a forced swim test, the rat will swim hard for approximately 10 minutes, then give up and float until the experimenters take them out. On the next trial, they are put back in the water, whereupon they give up much faster, usually after 2 minutes. This illustrates the “learned helplessness” model of depression. The forced swim test is a common behavioral test for assessing depression in rodents. Animals are placed in acrylic

Effects of Divorce on Children Essay

1772 words - 7 pages Effects of Divorce on ChildrenIntroductionEach year, over 1 million American children suffer from the divorce of their parents according to statistics. The divorce rate has immensely increased over the past few decades, and the lives of children are affected by the change that has transpired in their home life. In today's society most people accept divorce as a way of life, completely unaware of the damage they are doing to their children

Effects of Violence on Adolescence

1604 words - 7 pages friend, 49.6% never talked with a parent or an adult, and 70.7% never talked with a teacher or a counselor (Tummala-Narra, 18). These findings are important when studying the harmful effects of victimization. While reading this article I have learned that violence has a significant effect on especially adolescents. Adolescents are easily influenced by their environment. I learned that being in poverty can cause violence and that is something I did

Effects of Media on Children

1414 words - 6 pages effects on us? Most would say: rarely, or close to never. More than that, have you thought about its effects on our children? How is media today affecting little Suzy, or baby Johnny? Living in the twenty first century, it is vital to think about various effects that we are encountered to. Many information in being shadowed by people for their personal interest. It is then most vital for our own sake, and that of our children, to carefully

Effects of Divorce on Children

1098 words - 4 pages even more unfortunate situation when there are children involved. The psychological effects from the dissolution of a marriage are harder on children because they usually feel it is their fault that mommy and daddy are not together anymore. However, there are some instances where divorce is less stressful on the children, even the whole family unit, than the actual marriage itself. Lets explore both scenarios. Divorce can cause stress and

Effects of Cancer on People

1314 words - 5 pages Effects of Cancer on People Cancer is a deadly disease that has some very serious effects on a person both physically and mentally. Cancer can result in a simple surgery that may take only a couple days, or a life-long struggle that leaves someone so fatigued and tired that it makes them want to give up. It will put fear in anyone's eyes and will devastate even the strongest of people, but cancer can bring out the courageousness in a

Effects of Polio on Society

567 words - 2 pages Effects of Polio on Society Polio had existed in society for a long time in history, although not as big a problem in history as in the 20th century, when greater emphasis was put on sanitation and children stopped getting the disease as babies. The effects of this disease on society were great. People feared that tomorrow they or their family members or friends would catch polio. Although polio has been significantly reduced in

Effects of Technology on Learning

751 words - 3 pages Student Last Name 2Student NameInstructor NameENC 110107 October 2011Effects of Technology on LearningTechnology affects every aspect of our daily lives. Many people would argue that technology has advanced American society, while others believe that technology is actually having the opposite effects on society. Authors, Jeffrey Friedman and Rich Davis are two examples of many who have these controversial thoughts. Friedman believes that

Effects of Mining on Ecosystems

957 words - 4 pages particular forest that everyone around the world would feel the effects of if it were allowed to fall. It is past time to put the efficiency back into mining coal and other fuel sources in terms of energy efficiency. However, there are many more negative effects caused by mining on the environment than there are positive effects. Some of these include deforestation, which in turn destroys wildlife habitats. As land is cleared and low bushes and

Effects of Alcohol on Nutrition

574 words - 2 pages Effects of Alcohol on Nutrition There are many affects alcohol has on nutrition, in people of all ages. Each year more than 100,000 people die from alcohol related causes. According to the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug dependence more than 13 million Americans abuse alcohol. There are different types of alcohol dependency psychologically dependent and physically dependent. If you crave alcohol, or feel distresses without it you

Effects of Literature on Culture

1344 words - 6 pages book. Society, especially in the United States, has become consumed by the advancements in technology. People no longer have to read printed books, due to the invention of the Kindle and Nook along with the apps on other tablets to read. The use of the internet has made it accessible to order books directly from websites rather than going to the bookstore. All these things factor into the consumption of literary communication. Literature effects

Similar Essays

A Patient's Rights To Refuse Treatment And How It Relates To Learned Helplessness Of Individuals

2693 words - 11 pages different reactions from patients who are “good” and “bad” are a response to the depersonalization of hospitalization, and the perceived loss of control which accompanies it, and that the reaction is dependent on the individual differences, and past experiences of each patient. She argues that patients who are “good” are actually suffering from learned helplessness, and their passivity, while making the role of the hospital

"Patients Have The Right To Say No." Discuss This Statement In Relation To The Adoption Of The Role Of Learned Helplessness In Some Individuals Experiencing Illness

2219 words - 9 pages depersonalisation of hospitalisation, and the perceived loss of control which accompanies it, and that the reaction is dependent on the individual differences, and past experiences of each patient. She argues that patients who are "good" are actually suffering from learned helplessness, and their passivity, while making the role of the hospital staff easier, is not conducive to their recovery. The passivity they express is not merely a conformity to the regime

J.R.R. Tolkien On Matters Of Style And Audience

1764 words - 7 pages J.R.R. Tolkien - On Matters of Style and AudiencePossibly one of the most esteemed authors read by both adults and children alike, J.R.R. Tolkien and his vivid imagination have captured the hearts of audiences across all ages. His works - despite critics' claims - continue to be hailed by both luminaries of the literary circle and the ordinary men on the street. Despite the epic complexity of his works, Tolkien is one of the most read authors of

Effects Of Phobias On People Essay

818 words - 4 pages activities, mental health professionals classify it as an anxiety disorder. These sufferers may need specialized treatment to overcome their phobias. Causes of phobias include traumatic experiences, panic attacks, adapting it from other peoples actions. But the effects of phobias can change a person’s life forever. The effects of phobias on a person include being more afraid than normal, stress, embarrassment, and helplessness. The main effects of