This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Effects Of Back Ground Music On Phonological Short Term Memory

1300 words - 5 pages

Improving recall has been the goal of many scientific studies (Higbee, 2001; Lachman, Weaver, Bandura, Elliot, & Lewkowicz, 1992). As a result, a debate surfaced on the best method to achieve this goal. This study chose to focus on only two methods, emotional state and emotionally arousing words. One’s emotional state or mood is important to consider when exploring memory, because mood affects one’s recall of information (Happiness-Levine & Burgess, 1997; Thaut & l’Etoile, 1993). Music, depending on the type, can help induce or change one’s mood (Rickard, 2012). This is important because, music is apart of many of people’s daily lives. Students, especially, listen to music while they study a task that relies on one’s memory. Beyond just exploring mood, this study wanted to look at what type of word is best remembered. Previous research (Doerksen & Shimamura, 2001; LaBar & Phelps, 1998; Zimmerman & Kelley, 2010) found that people tend to recall and remember emotional words better than neutral non-emotional words. Building upon these findings is important because, if certain types of words were confirmed as inherently memorable then these words would be powerful. They could be used as powerful tools for writing memorable speeches, lectures, and advertisements. One’s mood working in conjunction with emotional words, could lead to effortless increase in one’s own ability to recall information
A recent study by Ferguson and Sheldon (2013) looked at inducing positive emotional states in their participants using classical music. In their study, participants listened to either 12 minutes of an upbeat “hedonically positive” classical music piece or a slow “hedonically ambiguous” classical music piece. Their results showed that participants who listened to the positive piece were more likely to rate their emotional state as positive. While tthe participants who listened to the ambiguous piece rated their emotional state as unchanged. The current study was able to rely on music to induce emotional states in participants, because of Ferguson and Sheldon’s work on confirming that positive music leads to positive moods.
In order to use music to affect a person’s mood and thus, increase their memory, music cannot be distracting. Salamé and Baddeley’s study (1989), found that background music distracted participants while they tried to recall different 9 digit numbers. They replicated the study using instrumental music, while distracting, was less distracting than vocal music. The current study needed to use music to induce a positive mood, but also needed that music to not distract participants from the recall task. This next study by Thaut and l'Etoile (1993) figured out how best to utilize music to enhance learning without distracting one from a task. They randomly assigned participants to one of five conditions: the presence of music, either as a background stimulus during encoding or recall or both, no music during encoding or recall, or music used to...

Find Another Essay On Effects of BackGround Music on Phonological Short-Term Memory

Sex and Short-Term Memory Essay

1485 words - 6 pages shown that this universal notion can only be partially validated; while women are generally superior when it comes to long-term memory and aspects of short-term memory such as multitasking and remembering faces, men excel in other areas that require an equally high short-term memory capacity ("Sex Differences in Memory"; Knox 3; Speck et al. 2583). ​Short-term memory (STM) is defined by Revlin as the system that facilitates the successful

Short Term and Long Term Memory

1245 words - 5 pages process in which the subject’s own ways of encoding and organising the material play a major role. As a result, they regard short term memory not so much as a temporary storage platform but as a mental workbench on which various items of experience are encoded – sorted, manipulate and organised. According to this view, whether the materials will be retained in memory long enough to become retrievable later does not depend upon a

The Control Processes of Short and Long Term Memory

1194 words - 5 pages ). The control processes of short-term memory. Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences, Stanford University. McLeod, S. A. (2007). Stages of Memory - Encoding Storage and Retrieval. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/memory.html Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63 (2): 81–97. Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory, (pp. 381–403). New York: Academic Press.

Free recall from short-term memory and long-term memory

1208 words - 5 pages search is from the background. Often times, we depend on attention to facilitate this search for our given target. Attention can help one find an object by, say, focusing on the location of the target. There are two modes of attention in which people typically rely on: parallel processing and serial processing. Parallel processing involves investigating and analyzing a multitude of objects on many different kinds of analysis all at the same time

The Short and Long Term Effects of Obesity on the Body

673 words - 3 pages giving your children a healthy eating schedule. Secondly the effects of obesity on the body are crazy. There are long term effects, and short term. The long term effects are increased chance of heart attack or stroke, which is the leading cause of death in adults. Another long term effect is joint problems, which can be very bad, in overweight people they are putting enough stress on their joints, which could cause them to collapse, and injure

The Short Term Psychological Effects of Mature Rated Video/Computer Games on Young Children

1894 words - 8 pages When one says video games are bad, in an emotional sense, and furthermore have no other comments as to why video games are bad, one would assume that video games are bad. Having heard no other opinion on the matter, deeming video games as bad would be logical reasoning. This was my first problem. I have neither read nor heard anything that would deem video games as safe in a short term scheme. So, to weed through all articles deeming video games

Short and Long Term Psychological Effects on American Soldiers

1818 words - 8 pages In the 1940’s a heinous act of genocide was committed by the Nazi party against several groups of “undesirables”, at the end of the destruction 14 million were dead (Byers 12). The bulk of these killings were conducted at concentration camps and at the height of the tragedy “death camps”. The discovery of the camps and the events that followed left many lasting psychological effects on American soldiers. Before the liberation of Buchenwald on

Long and Short-Term Effects of Drug Usage During Pregnancy

1744 words - 7 pages . Works Cited Brennan, P., Cornelius, M. D., De Genna, N., Lotfipour, S., Paus, T., D'Onofrio, B. M., ... & McBride, C. (2012). Tobacco and pregnancy. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging - 15 December 2004 (Vol. 132, Issue 2, Pages 95- 106, DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2004.06.004 Kuczkowski, K. M. (2004). Marijuana in pregnancy. ANNALS-ACADEMY OF MEDICINE SINGAPORE, 33, 336-339. Meyer, Kurt D., and Lubo Zhang. "Short- and Long-term Adverse Effects of Cocaine Abuse during Pregnancy on the Heart Development." Short- and Long-term Adverse Effects of Cocaine Abuse during Pregnancy on the Heart Development. SAGE, 15 Jan. 2009. Web. 17 Apr. 2014.

The Interactions between Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory: What is the Messaging Protocol?

2060 words - 9 pages that existed during the encoding. Figure 1.3. How the medial temporal lobe contributes to episodic encoding and retrieval 4. Issues in STM and LTM I. Verbal Short Memory :Reflection of Long-Term Memory Organization There have been many previous studies that have attempted to show the effects that STM has on the organization of LTM. The studies have failed to produce conclusive evidence until now. One of the studies

Miller's Theory of Short-Term Memory and 7 plus/minus 2

825 words - 3 pages Miller's Theory of Short-Term Memory and 7 plus/minus 2Theory: Miller's Theory of Short-Term Memory and 7 plus/minus 2Miller's theory is founded on the basis that the human mental capacity has a finite span of immediate or short term memory which has shown to be approximately seven chunks of data plus or minus two (Miller,1994). His original work was printed in the Psychology Review in 1956 and is still being analyzed and cited today by those

Free Recall vs. Cued Recall in Short Term Memory

640 words - 3 pages data. The next stage, called the consolidation phase, stores the information and leads into the third stage, the retrieval phase, which makes the stored information readily accessible for future use. Along with the three stage process, memory can consist of three different types of systems: sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory. The most instantaneous type of memory, which can usually preserve an auditory or visual source that is

Similar Essays

The Effects Of Music On Memory

2777 words - 11 pages vital that the use of music in this way continues to grow and prosper if we want to increase the use of more natural and readily available treatments to illnesses and other issues. No other option exists that is more effective while having as few long term side effects as music. It would be in the best interest of everyone to continue researching the vast beneficial effects of music on memory in order to see where else music can benefit our society

Link Between Verbal Fluency And Phonological Short Term Memory In Simultaneous Bilinguals And Monolinguals

2242 words - 9 pages also looks for gender differences and expects to yield similar findings. DISCUSSION The present study focused on differences in performance of bilinguals and monolinguals on a verbal fluency task and a phonological short-term memory task aiming to evaluate if there is a link between the two abilities. Research analyses indicated that bilinguals have a disadvantage in verbal fluency, a results that is in line with previous findings

Short Term Memory Theory Essay

825 words - 3 pages Miller's Theory of Short-Term Memory and 7 plus/minus 2Theory: Miller's Theory of Short-Term Memory and 7 plus/minus 2Miller's theory is founded on the basis that the human mental capacity has a finite span of immediate or short term memory which has shown to be approximately seven chunks of data plus or minus two (Miller,1994). His original work was printed in the Psychology Review in 1956 and is still being analyzed and cited today by those

Short Term Memory Concept Paper

611 words - 2 pages information until it is stored into the long-term memory.Short term memory is also roughly known as the "working memory" or conscious thought. As I am reading this, the information is flowing into and out of my working memory. When you are talking or answering questions on an exam, the information must be brought into working memory for you to manipulate, and your words and answers come out of working memory (APA Short).Imagine that you are asked to