Endocrine-disruptors chemicals are exogenous substances that are exposed into the environment and interfere with the endocrine system (Rubin, 2011). These chemicals interrupt the normal hormonal process in developmental (growth), immune effects, neurological system but mostly its main target is reproductive system (Schonfelder, Froedrich, & Chahoud, 2004). Substances such as pharmaceuticals, DDT, polychlorinated biphnyls and bisphenol A (BPA) can be the examples of endocrine-disruptors chemicals (Wetherill, Petre, Monk, Knudsen, 2002). Among all of these chemicals, BPA is the most common chemical that is exposed in people’s daily life and this affects human and wildlife the most (Xiao, Diao, Smith, Song, & Ye, 2011). Bisphenol A (BPA) is a benzene derived monomer which is one of the highest volume chemicals that produces about 8 billion pounds annually worldwide (Rubin, 2011). This chemical contains two unsaturated phenol functional groups and it exists in everywhere (Schonfelder et al., 2004). It can be found in medical devices, dental supply tools, water bottles, food/beverage containers, baby supplies like milk bottle and many other products that are manufacture of plastics and epoxy resins which are pervasive in the environment and our daily lives (Braun et al., 2011). Majority of human population can be exposed to BPA mainly via inhalation, ingestion and skin contact (Xiao et al., 2011). With very low dose of BPA (20μg/kg body weight/day) still can bring disruptions in hormone’s physiological function like carcinogenic effects, cancer precursors in breast, brain dysfunction, impair immune system, male sexual dysfunction, diabetes and birth defects (Rubin 2007). When BPA is exposed to the pregnant women, this can bring harmful effects to both mother and foetus in the womb (Xiao et al., 2011). In this paper, I am going to talk about how the BPA is affecting the embryo development of organisms and see what different mechanisms of are existed within the BPA effects on embryonic development and how the birth defects take places.
History of BPA:
In 1891, BPA was first synthesized by Aleksander Dianin during his experiments when phenol with acetone was mixed in the presence of acid (Dianin, 1891). But BPA did not get much attention until 1936 due to the no further BPA research that were documented (Rubin, 2011). E.C. dodds and W. Lawson continued the research on BPA by comparing rat’s estrogenic activity of different types of organic compounds using subcutaneous injection (Cooper-Roth & Tristan, 2010). It was then investigated for potential commercial used for synthetic estrogens search since this was discovered as estrogens agonist in ovariectomized (Cooper-Roth & Tristan, 2010). BPA’s estrogenic potency was estimated to be 10,000-folds less than that of 17beta-setradiol which may reflect the affinity of BPA for the classical nuclear estrogen receptors (Xiao et al., 2011). The activity of BPA was approved, however it was indicated...