Effects Of Levels Of Processing, Context, And Gender Differences In Recall Memory

1886 words - 8 pages

Over the years, several models have been proposed to explain the nature of memory processes (e.g., Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Estes & Maddox, 1995; Raajimakers & Shiffrin, 1981). One of those models, level of processing, proposed that the duration that information can be held in the memory depends on the depth at which it is processed, not the stage of memory in which it is held. A study by Smith, Theodore, and Franklin (1983) examined this hypothesis by investigating how depth of processing affect the amount of processing obtained in the processing of a target item in a lexical detection task (LDT) by college students. The study asked 100 college students to make lexical decisions about target after making decision about prime. The result of the unexpected post-session recall test indicated that superior recall for words was dependent on the way in which the prime was processed, with semantic decision (deep processing) resulting in greater facilitation over words whose processing focused on visual or phonemic features (shallow processing).
Other studies (e.g., Gordon & Debus, 2002; Irwin & Lupker, 1983; Kearian, 1986) have also found that the deeper the coding of information, the more durable the memory. For example, Gordon and Debus have demonstrated that contextual modification in teaching, task requirements, and assessment processes can increase college students’ use of deep processing approaches to learning. They argued that deep processing approach help students’ problem solving abilities, while the use of shallow processing approaches results in study behaviours that led to low quality learning outcomes. This was in support of earlier findings by Craik & Lockhart (1972) which posits that deep processing brings about better long-term memory than shallow processing.
According to Craik & Watkins (1973), it is very evident that what regulates the level of recall is not only a person’s intention to learn, the amount of effort he or she put in, the degree of difficulty of the task, the aggregate of time he or she spends in making judgments and decisions, the number of times that rehearsal of the items took place, the qualitative nature of the task, or the kind of operations carried out, but the level at which the information is processed. Thus, memory or items are recalled/remembered, not as existing stimuli acting on an individual, but as components of an individual’s mental activity (Craik & Lockhart (1972). Schulman (1971) had participants scan list of words for targets that were either defined structurally (e.g., words containing the letter A) or semantically (e.g., words denoting living things). The participants were given an unexpected test for recall memory after the scanning task. The result showed that the participant’s performance in the semantically defined target conditions was considerably higher than that in the structurally defined conditions. These results affirms the overall inferences that recall...

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