Effects Of Morphine Essay

1360 words - 5 pages

Morphine is an opioid that attacks the opioid receptors at the spinal cord, medulla oblongata, the spinal trigeminal nucleus and the grey region. The receptors, which are of µ, α, β types, enhance the interaction of the drug and eventual effects in the human body. Of these receptor types, the µ is the most important for analgesia effects to be realized. There are two µ subtypes: the µ1 and the µ2 (Stoelting 1999). The µ1 subtype is involved in analgesia more than the µ2 since, the second subtype, which is involved more in the respiratory depression. In addition, the µ2 subtype is also involved in mediating bradycardia and physical dependence (Hasslesstrom & Sawe 2001).
The presence of Morphine makes the G-protein active and this is important for it to bind to the receptor. Upon being activated, the G protein alters the permeability at the neural receptors (Chay, Duff, & Walker 2002). When the permeability is affected, neuronal activity is altered through hyperpolarization of the membrane. When neuronal activities stop, analgesia is initiated (Dolin 2000). The opiate receptors at the Central Nervous System are the main areas where morphine attacks. At the brainstem centers, morphine directly affects the respiratory activities, causing respiratory depression that eventually leads to analgesia (Bhandari, Bergqvist, & Kronsberg 2005).
Respiratory depression involves reducing the receptiveness of the respiratory centers, and this inhibits reaction to carbon dioxide increase and electrical stimulation (National Center for Biotechnology Information 2011). Other than analgesia, morphine also affects the cough center, causing depression in the cough reflex. The cough center is at the medulla and morphine penetrates and causes the depression through its interaction with the opioid receptors. When morphine is given in smaller doses, antitussive effects may occur in place of analgesia (Meldrum 2003).
Orthostatic hypotension can be caused by morphine through peripheral vasodilatation. Morphine can also cause hypotension through the release of histamine. Some of the detectable features after morphine intake include histamine release, flushes, red eyes and sweating. Morphine also affects the endocrine system through hormone secretion (Anand, Hall, & Desai 2004). The drug alters the secretion of Acylcorticotropic hormone, cortical, and luteinizing hormone and this affects various body functions and activities.
Morphine also alters the immune system by reducing the secretion of various hormones responsible for enhancing immunity (Health Grades 2011). Morphine has an elimination halftime of one and a half hours to four and a half. The bolus administration makes the onset time to be slow, taking between 15 to 30 minutes. The reason for this is that morphine has a low lipid solubility of about 2.5 % of sublimaze. Morphine has a weak base of about 8 units on the pH scale and this makes it easy ionize. The ionized form inhibits the passage of the drug...

Find Another Essay On Effects of Morphine

Morphine: Preventative Pain Control Essay

2897 words - 12 pages Morphine: Preventative Pain Control I. Introduction Narcotic analgesics, especially morphine are underused for pain control with in the medical field. This underuse is because medical professionals, including doctors, fear patient addiction, side effects and possible lose of their licenses. These fears deny adequate healing and a better quality of life to those who would benefit from a more effective use of these drugs, as done in

Ketorolac Versus Opioids For Renal Colic

3890 words - 16 pages uncomfortable side effects. Many physicians prescribe NSAIDs such as ketorolac instead of opioids, believing that NSAIDs are as effective or better than opioids. Effective and rapid pain management is a goal of treating renal colic in ED.Renal colic is a common complaint at my practice site, and there is no specified analgesic protocol to follow. Most physicians prescribe either morphine or ketorolac, others prefer to administer both. There are

Opium In America During The 19th Century

1101 words - 4 pages Opium in Nineteenth Century America Opiate is a term used to include narcotic drugs derived from opium. Drugs such as morphine, heroin, and codeine are all drugs that come from opium. Opium smoking began only after the early Europeans in North America discovered the Indian practice of smoking tobacco in pipes. Some smokers began to mix opium with tobacco in their pipes, and smoking gradually became the preferred method of taking opium. Opium was

Drugs: The Production of Heroin

2011 words - 8 pages patients suffering from physical trauma, post-surgical pain, and chronic pain because of the relaxing effects it has on the body. The relaxing effect exists due to the administration of the drug to the brain being very rapidly, which is also why health risks exists with the drug as well why addiction occurs. When it enters the brain, heroin is converted back into morphine, which binds to molecules on cells known as opioid receptors. These receptors

Heroin

622 words - 2 pages more portent than morphine. It also has three nicknamed: ¡§H¡¨,¡§horse¡¨, and¡§smack¡¨.Short-Term Effects Once it is injected, heroin crosses the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, heroin is converted into morphine. Abusers usually report feeling a surge of pleasurable sensation, a ¡§rush¡¨. The intensity of the rush depends on how many drugs are taken and how

Heroin

620 words - 2 pages morphine. It also has three nicknamed: ¡§H¡¨,¡§horse¡¨, and¡§smack¡¨.Short-Term Effects Once it is injected, heroin crosses the blood-brain barrier. In the brain, heroin is converted into morphine. Abusers usually report feeling a surge of pleasurable sensation, a ¡§rush¡¨. The intensity of the rush depends on how many drugs are taken and how fast it enters the

The Different Affects of Drug Abuse Among Genders

1609 words - 7 pages her morphine addiction, whereas the men, Tyrone, Jamie, Edmund, in the household appear to be affected physically by their alcohol addiction. Cynthia Robbins’s “Sex Differences in Psychosocial Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse” supports the different effects of drug abuse among men and women, while Gerardine Meaney’s “Long Day's Journey into Night: Modernism, Post-Modernism and Maternal Loss” article focuses on the generalized view of women

Legalization of Marijuana

1430 words - 6 pages curable or not marijuana is a wonderful pain reliever that does not have has harmful effects as some of the medically prescribed drugs such as morphine. Morphine is highly addictive which can be the same effect with cannabis, but unlike morphine cannabis is a drug someone can never overdose on. “Morphine and codeine cause more nausea than other opioids”(Morphine Side Effects). Which also is something else cannabis does not do to the human body

The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906

1732 words - 7 pages of substances. Not by mere coincidence was the law passed only about five years after Bayer, a German based drug company began selling the morphine derivative, heroin. Thought to be a safe, non-habit forming alternative to morphine, heroin quickly became the “cure-all drug” that was used to treat anything from coughs to restlessness. Yet, just as quickly as it became a household staple, many began to question the innocence of the substance

Explain the effect of conditioned drug tolerance and why it may important in cases of drug overdose

2257 words - 9 pages of drug administration to consistent environmental cues but not to effects of the drug (Siegel, 1984).Previous research has found that drug tolerance can be conditioned to an environment that drugs are previously administered, supporting the Pavlovian model of drug tolerance (Siegel, 1976).For example in one of Seigel's (1976) studies on rats. He made them tolerant by the administration of morphine; the UCS, which caused the rat to produce

The Different Affects of Drug Abuse Among Genders

992 words - 4 pages As seen in Long Days Journey into Night by Eugene O’Neill, drug abuse affects women and men differently. Mary Tyrone seems to be affected mentally by her morphine addiction, whereas the men, Tyrone, Jamie, Edmund, in the household appear to be affected physically by their alcohol addiction. Cynthia Robbins’s “Sex Differences in Psychosocial Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse” supports the different effects of drug abuse among men and women

Similar Essays

The Pain Killing And Pleasurable Effects Of Morphine

1013 words - 5 pages be altered by taking a number of drugs including heroin and methadone and lasting effects can ensue. The pain-killing and pleasurable effects of morphine, the narcotic drug derived from the opium poppy, is widely known. Endorphins are surprising similarity to morphine. It was termed “endorphin” from endogenous (meaning within) and morphine (morphine being a pain killer). It was wondered why morphine and other opiate drugs should produce such

Morphine Vs Marijuana Essay

1452 words - 6 pages receptors. In this way it mimics these naturally occurring compounds and affectively blocking the pain messengers from inducing pain. In essence this means that the nerve cells do not work as effectively and do not conduct as many impulses. Therefore morphine reduces pain by blocking the nerves in the spinal cord that carry pain signals and induce pain in the body. As well as doing this morphine has a number of complex effects on the pain

Comparing Morphine Iv Pca Vs. Fentanyl Its

924 words - 4 pages Postoperative surgical pain can often be moderate to severe leaving the client in a state of discomfort that requires the administration of opioid analgesic medications. Morphine intravenous (IV) patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is commonly provided through a pump to treat postoperative surgical pain, but with advances in the medication administration field, a fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) has become another popular method

Ethical Issue In Comfort Care Essay

818 words - 4 pages morphine rate is only titrated to get the patient at a comfortable level than to speed up their death process. According to Stephens (2012), many patients in comfort care have grown tolerant of opiates and require significant amounts of morphine and it is sometimes difficult to know when a large dose becomes a lethal dose. The side effects of morphine make it difficult to draw the line between keeping a person comfortable and helping them to die