For the Master of Veterinary Science in Pharmacology
By Jihad Ibrahim Irbia
College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources,
King Faisal University
Effect of the administration of etoricoxib using nanotechnology for the treatment of experimental arthritis in a mouse model
Inflammation is a basic yetcomplex process thatprotects the body by eliminating both the causes and consequences of injury, such as microbes, toxins, and necrotic cells. Therefore, plasma proteins, circulating cells, and tissue phagocytes(the body’s defenders against foreign invaders) must be recruited to the extravascular space in order to rid the organism of these factors(Kumar et al.,2010). Recent advances in nanomedical research have provided scientists with nanocarrierswithmany unique and tunable properties to match the specific requirements for the treatment of variousinflammatory diseases.
Etoricoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that selectively inhibits isoform 2 of the enzyme cyclooxygenase(cox-2). The drugis approved for use in more than 70 countries worldwide for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Although it is available for the treatment of many inflammatory conditions, its low bioavailability and nontargetedbiodistribution often limit its success in controlling disease symptoms.
Neutral nanoparticles with sizes smaller than that of the vascular-pore cutoff are likely to escape surface opsonization and will have significantly low uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. These particles will circulate longer in the blood and can be passively targeted to inflamed tissues. On the other hand, particles intended for uptake by macrophages should be larger and contain distinct surface charges to facilitate their interaction and internalization by macrophages (Moghimi et al., 2001). Therefore, nanoencapsulation of etoricoxib using polymeric nanoparticles for the delivery of etoricoxib will be conducted to obtainbetter efficacy, to provide better availability, and to reduce side effects viaselective delivery to target sites.
2: Literature Review
The origins of nanotechnology date from 1959, when physicist Richard Feynman, a Nobel Prize winner in physics, described molecular machines built with atomic precision in his lecture “There’s plenty of room at the bottom,” presented to the American Physical Society (Sahoo et al.,2007; Singh et al., 2011). However, it was Professor Noro Taniguchi who first used the term “nanotechnology” in 1974 (Kreuter, 2007).
Recently, the medical standing committee of the European Science Foundation defined nanotechnology as “the science and technology of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body”(Webster, 2006). An alternate definition includes carrier systems in the nanosize range (preferably 10-100nm)...