Efficacy Of Echinacea On The Action Of Cyproterone Acetate In Male Rats

3256 words - 13 pages

ABSTRACT
The study aimed to evaluate the effect Echinacea extract (E) on the testicular antioxidants function in normal rats or that subjected to anti-androgenic compound, cyproterone acetate (CA). Rats were divided into 5 groups treated daily via an oral tube for two intervals 2 and 4 weeks, 1st control, 2nd E (63mg/kg), 3rd CA (25mg/kg), 4th E+CA and 5th E as prophylactic one week before E+CA treatment. So CA used as a positive control compound with antiandrogenic activity with proposed testicular oxidant. The body, testes, epididymis and vas deferens weights were recorded. Sperm count, nitric oxide (NO), calcium ion (Ca2+) and malondialdhyde (MDA) contents in addition to superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were determined in testicular tissues. CA exhibited direct negative effect on reproductive organs weight and significant reducing effect on sperm count and Ca2+ contents. SOD and GST activities significantly decreased in addition to significant increase in NO, MDA contents reflecting the oxidative status of testis in CA treated rats.
The prophylactic effect of E treatment, in time related manner, showed significant improvement in the antioxidant status of the testicular tissue which is more pronounced as compared to E+CA treatment.
Key wards: Echinacea, cyproterone acetate, reproductive system, antioxidants
INTRODUCTION
The antioxidant system plays an effective role in protecting testes and other biological tissues below a critical threshold of reactive oxygen species (ROS) thus preventing testicular dysfunction (Oschsendorf, 1999). ROS mediated oxidative stress is one of crucial reasons of infertility and decreased sperm viability and increased level of free radicals may cause degeneration of testicular tissue (Koksal et al, 2002; Turner and Lysiak, 2008). The administration of antioxidants to normal animals, not suffering from induced oxidative stress, also appears to improve testicular function, suggesting that oxidative stress is a consistent feature of testicular physiology (Orozco et al., 2003; Juan et al., 2005), antioxidants administered to infertile men advocate promising their use in male infertility treatment(Suleiman et al., 1996; Keskes-Ammar et al., 2003)
Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic steroidal drug which competes with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for the androgen receptor. It is used to suppress male fertility in oral contraceptives formulations and also in the treatment of various sexual and metabolic disorders. (Meriggiola et al., 1996). Cyproterone also has progesterone like activity and reduces pituitary luteinizing hormone and plasma testosterone (McLeod, 1993) and suppresses the secretion of gonadotropins and thus interferes with testosterone production (Barradell and Faulds, 1994; Neumann, 1994; Honer et al., 2003). Due to the direct interaction with the cellular receptors CA inhibits the action of the androgens, and for this property it is used in the treatment of...

Find Another Essay On Efficacy of Echinacea on the Action of Cyproterone Acetate in Male Rats

The Concept of Self-Efficacy Essay

1853 words - 7 pages ). Empowerment and control are essential to elements to self-efficacy. According to Bandura, early social learning theory of behavioral change, cognitive processing determines the behavior change and cognitive events are started or changed by the experience of competency. Bandura focused on perceived self-efficacy, which he defines as a belief in one’s own capability to organize and execute the course of action required to attain a goal

The Efficacy of Binaural Beats Essay

2239 words - 9 pages side effects (Candor 1) Despite the copious amount of information in corroboration to the National implementation of Binaural Beat patterns for Rehabilitation and Therapy, there are those who would limit the proliferation of this ‘Digital Drug’ for fear of it’s potential. For instance, Kim Kommando, host of her radio program The Kim Kommando Show on Computers and Technology, fears that Binaural Beats are “cause for worry” (1). Kommando

The Efficacy of Deposit Insurance in the Australian Context

5068 words - 20 pages The Efficacy of Deposit Insurance in the Australian ContextIntroductionIn 2012, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) released their first Financial System Stability Assessment on Australia since the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-09. Despite the positive findings, one high priority recommendation was to convert the current funding arrangements for the Financial Claims Scheme (FCS) to an ex-ante funded scheme. To that end, in August 2013, the

The Role of Self-Efficacy in Behavioural Change

1514 words - 6 pages before attempting to act on the particular new behaviour. So, in the formation of intention, outcome expectancy is an essential element but is slightly less needed in the action control. But, to put it in the perspective of self-efficacy, both phases of self-regulation highly need the presence of one’s self-efficacy in adopting a desired behaviour. REFERENCES Banduras, A. , Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

Experimental Utilization Of 2-Ethoxy Ethyl Acetate

1404 words - 6 pages Introduction The diesel engine dominates the field of commercial transportation and agricultural machinery on account of its superior fuel efficiency. However they emit more emissions. The use of oxygenated fuels seems to be a promising solution towards reducing emissions in existing and future diesel engines. Oxygenated fuel is a chemical compound containing oxygen. It is used to help fuel burn more efficiently and cut down on some types of

Effect of natural penetration enhancers on dermal delivery of hydrocortisone acetate

1432 words - 6 pages ratios were selected based on the results obtained. 2.2.3. Development of microemulsions The criteria for selection of microemulsion formulations in the skin permeation studies were based on the good physicochemical properties and stability of the developed formulations. HCA loaded microemulsions were prepared by dissolving HCA in eucalyptus oil/ clove oil/ lemon grass oil and surfactant mixture, adding the required quantity of water, and stirring

Efficacy of Gatorade vs Water in Rehydration

1238 words - 5 pages engage in daily exercise, if not multiple exercise routines in one day (3,4,5,6). It then follows that the goal for these individuals should be avoidance of dehydration and maximization of rehydration through maintenance of electrolyte balance, replenishment of muscle glycogen, and plasma osmolality. Thus, examination of a fluid’s efficacy in these three areas is crucial. Through extensive research, it is evident that Gatorade will rehydrate

Education of the Black Male in America

3139 words - 13 pages caring support base, and more relevant social services. When Black male students have assimilated the message that they are in need of 'discipline,' teachers, now faced with preparing students for state and national achievement tests, begin to place more emphasis on the importance of disciplined behavior: I call this 'the confrontation point,' because at about third or fourth grade, when schools begin national achievement testing and have

The shortage of male teachers in schools

1369 words - 5 pages For the benefit of male students, there needs to be more males teaching in schools. Boys need male role models in school - especially when coming from homes with no fathers - and more than two thirds of Australia's teachers are female. There has been much concern about boys not performing as well as girls throughout the school years, especially in English and humanities. Views of masculinity are distorted by a lack of male role models, resulting

The Behaivor of Male Characters in Macbeth

830 words - 3 pages has been given the title of the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth, from this point on tries to twist and turn his fate to fulfill these prophecies, and very soon his lust for power turns him against all of his family and friends. Macbeth, the protagonist of the story, was sort of similar, yet very different than the other male characters in Macbeth. Macbeth, unlike Macduff and Banquo, transitioned his attitude and emotions throughout the play. In the

Efficacy of Play Therapy

2154 words - 9 pages For children, therapy can be a scary thing. Seeing a therapist can be difficult for adults, as it requires trusting a new person and often entails divulging the most intimate details of one's life. Imagine, then, how difficult it must be for children to adjust to counseling. It is necessary to create a comfortable environment for them to feel safe and able to open up. In this research paper, I will be exploring the efficacy of play therapy in

Similar Essays

The Effect Of Prenatal Stress On Sexual Behavior Of Male Rats

1263 words - 6 pages developing into an atypical male or female during the activational period. Frye and Orecki (2002) examined the affect of prenatal environment of female rats on their sexual behavior later in life. Their research analyzed the behavioral inhibition of the female rats in mating (Frye and Orecki, 2002). Frye and Orecki (2002) performed tests on a control group, and a group that were prenatally stressed, and compared their behavior toward a male rat

War Of The Rats Essay

809 words - 3 pages one’s time on for entertainment purposes alone. However, as I have mentioned before they also are both very educational. Both are based on factual events. War of the Rats is more about two individual people than the actual war, but still gives a brief overview about the battle of Stalingrad. Stalingrad focuses on the suffering of the German soldiers and probably is more useful than the War of the Rats in the sense that it covers the actual war

The Effects Of Social Interaction And Odor Exposure On Food Preferences In Sprague Dawley Rats

2971 words - 12 pages presented with that food and another novel food (strupp1984). This type of social learning is advantageous to the survival of rats as a species; the ability to learn an aversion to poisonous substances from another member of the species minimizes the negative effect on the population caused by such poisonous substances. The primary social strategy that rats have developed in wild colonies to maximize social exposure and minimize poisoning amongst

Title: Community Link This Essay Is One Author's Persepective On The Efficacy Of Community Action Groups And Their Quest To Elevate Standards Of Living For The Underprivileged.

2916 words - 12 pages can be created only when people understand he task ahead of them and then endeavor to undertake the work and complete it. Ready to fight for the underprivileged, and starving to feed the hungry (physically, emotionally, and spiritually), I began to search for an organization with a genuine, unselfish interest in improving people's lives and forging alliances between all people in the community.The Uptown Community Action Group (UCAG) a small