Two of the earliest and greatest civilizations, Mesopotamia and Egypt, show the transition from a Paleolithic society into a settled civilization. Both cultures had established kings; however, the Pharaoh is the god-king of Egypt, while in Mesopotamia the monarchs are priest-kings whom serve the gods. Although Mesopotamia and Egypt have some characteristics in common, which bring them under the “First Civilizations” category, their different views and beliefs about divine authority and how it is practiced set these civilizations apart and make them unique.
Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were affiliated with divine authority. The priest-king of Mesopotamia and the pharaoh of Egypt were both closely tied to religious institutions. Even though both civilizations carried out their roles of kingship in different ways, the duties and responsibilities that they had to take were the same in many aspects. The two major roles as a priest-king or pharaoh were order and protection. They were in charge of maintaining peace and justice between not only the people of civilization, but also outsiders. He was looked upon as a religious who carried out religious, political, and social rituals and functions. Not only was he looked upon as a religious leader, but also as a military leader. They had to lead their armies into battle, and decide what was best for the people at the moment. Hammurabi, for example, was one of the greatest kings of Mesopotamia. Not only was he a successful military leader and administrator, but also believed in justice, which is why he created laws that governed Babylon called the Code of Hammurabi. An example of a great Egyptian
pharaoh was Hatshepsut, the first female to rule Ancient Egypt. During her reign, Egypt’s economy flourished and trade relations expanded.
Although the kings of both lands were closely tied to religious institutions they had very different...