Egypt Renewable Energy Essay

2231 words - 9 pages

2. Egypt current energy profile
2.1 Oil
Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta, Western Desert, Eastern Desert, Sinai, and the Mediterranean Sea are the main regions of Egypt's oil production. But most of them are small fields. According to 2013's estimates, Egypt's proven crude oil reserves are 4.4 billion barrels. This estimate is higher than that of 2010 which was 3.7 billion barrels. This is due to new oil discoveries since 2008 till 2011. (EIA, 2013)
"Total oil consumption grew by an annual average of 3 percent over that past decade to 755,000 bbl/d in 2012." It is obvious in the following chart that oil consumption has exceeded production since 2010. (EIA, 2013)

Fig 1.1: Oil production and consumption (1000 bbl/d) in Egypt 2003-2012 (EIA, 2013)
2.2 Natural Gas
Mediterranean Sea and Nile Delta are the main regions of natural gas reserves. According to 2013's estimates, Egypt's proven natural gas reserves are 77 Tcf. This estimate is higher than that of 2010 estimate of 58.5 Tcf. There were 16 natural gas discoveries in 2009, 10 in 2010, and 7 in 2011 (EIA, 2013)
Egypt's natural gas consumption has increased by an annual average of 11 percent from
2001 to 2011. Much of the natural gas consumed in Egypt is used to fuel electric power plants. Moreover, transportation and domestic demand consumption is also rising. The following chart shows that exports are decreasing since 2010 due to flat production and increased consumption. "This may summon that the government start to import natural gas for the first time". (EIA, 2013)

Fig 2.1: Dry natural gas production, consumption, and exports (by billion cubic feet) in Egypt 2001-2011 (EIA, 2013)
2.3 Hydroelectric power
"Hydro power is considered one of the cheapest and cleanest sources of power generation in Egypt". The Hydro power plants are: the 2.1 GW High Dam, Aswan1, Aswan 2, Isna and Naga-Hamadi. In 2011-2012, hydroelectric power contributed with 8.2% of the total power generation. (Egyptian Electricity Holding Company, 2012)
2.4 Solar
Currently, 140 MW are generated from the solar-thermal power plant is located in Kuraymat, south of Cairo. (EIA, 2013)
2.5 Wind
In 2010, 1.5 billion KWh are generated from the Zafarana and Hurghada wind farms. (EIA, 2013)

3. Egypt's renewable energy potentials
3.1 Solar Capabilities
"Egypt is located in the “sunbelt” area of the world". The sun shines 9-11 hours per day with an intensity of 2000-2600 kWh/m2 per year. Egypt has additional advantage of having extremely wide deserts providing the needed area for solar power technologies. (Effat Mostafa, 2013)
The promising locations are in Abu Simbel, Toshka, Kom Umbo, Esna, Marsa Alam, Quseir Resory, West and South of Safaga, Hurgada, Kuraymat, and Farafra Oasis. Also, Mediterranean and Red Sea coastal strips are attractive spots for water desalination projects using solar power. (Ehab Mohamed, 2011)
The following is the Solar Atlas for Egypt. It is obvious that the Upper Egypt region is attractive for solar energy...

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