Imagining life without electricity is like life without air. As the development is at its
pace, the advancement is not possible without the consumption of electric power. Despite of the
fact that we took electricity for granted, the present increasing demands for electricity cannot be
fulfilled. For over more than a century, coal and other fossil fuels has been used by the power
plants as the most favoured resource for power generation. This process is carried out with the
help of the grids. Presently, more than 70% of the total global energy demand is satisfied by the
burning of fossil fuels. If we continue to utilize fossil fuels to meet the needs of present
generation, soon they will get exhausted and our future generation would be deprived of it.
The consumption of fossil fuels is responsible for increasing environmental pollution (air
pollution, global warming etc.).Also the present power generation rate is not adequate to fulfil
the growing or future demands. So, in order to compensate with the above stated problems, the
concept of sustainable energy system has been introduced. In this system, the major paradigm is
the energy conservation and use of renewable resources(wind, biomass, hydro, solar energy etc.).
Distributed generation (DG) is an alternative which is gathering momentum and an
alternative source of energy such as photovoltaic, wind, fuel cells, etc., are playing an increasing
role in meeting the ever increasing power demands. The need to integrate the renewable energy
like wind energy into power system is to make it possible to minimize the environmental impact
on conventional plant.
A grid is a network or framework or an array of same sized bars. It is indeed a network of power lines and the substations carrying electricity from the plant to the respective homes and businesses. A power grid is a system of high tension cables through which the electrical power is being distributed throughout a particular area or region.
1.2 Electrical Grids
An electrical grid is indeed a network of interconnected of power generating stations which produce electric power, substations, high voltage transmission lines or cables for carrying power, and related aspects whose main function is bound to deliver electricity from suppliers to consumers. In other words, an electric grid is a network of synchronized power providers along with the consumers connected through transmission and distribution lines, which are operated by one or more control centres. While talking about the power "grid," it refers to the transmission system for electricity. The topology of the grid varies significantly. It depends upon the availability of land and the geological condition. Factors that affect topology of grid are the constraints of budget, system and its reliability, properties of the load and power generation.A general layout of the electricity networks is shown, depicting the...