Embodiment Of The Principle Of Universal Jurisdiction

2384 words - 10 pages

Universal jurisdiction also called the universality principle enables nations to prosecute offenders of certain crimes, even though they don’t have any nexus to the crime, the alleged offender and the victim. As a concept it was historically developed on the maritime legal principle of hostis humani generis (enemy of the humankind) to address the issue of piracy, which caused considerable destruction of international trade. However, today this principle is applied to prosecute perpetrators of crimes against humanity. This principle also operates on the international concept of jus cogens which argues that certain obligations under international law are binding on all states and therefore they cannot be altered by a treaty. The Eichmann Trial and the Pinochet Case both have been very significant points in international legal history emphasizing the universality principle.
In the Eichmann trial, the judiciary in Israel set a substantial and contemporary precedent towards the advancement of universal jurisdiction. The court in a detailed verdict appealed to the idea of the natural law to find universal jurisdiction applied. The accused in this case, Adolf Eichmann was appointed to the Jewish Section of the “Security Services” (SS) in 1934 and later on became extremely involved in Hitler’s’ formulation and operation of the “Final Solution”. At the end of World War II, many top officials of the Nazi Party were tried at Nuremberg Trials. In 1950, Eichmann escaped to Argentina like many other members of the Nazi Party and lived there under assumed name and identity with his wife and children joining him two years later. A decade later in 1960, Mossad, the Israeli Secret Service learned of his presence in Argentina and in May that year he was captured as a part of a covert operation and brought to Tel Aviv to face trial. Eichmann's trial began in April, 1961 at the Jerusalem District Court. It gave rise to international interest and brought the atrocities committed by the Nazis to the frontline of the world news. The trial was broadcasted over radio live in Israel and was encouraged to be broadcasted around the world by the Israeli government. Many of the Holocaust survivors were sharing their experiences for the very first time through their testimonies in this trial. An approximate total of 110 witnesses testified at the trial. Dr. Robert Servatius, a German Lawyer known for defending Nazis in the Nuremberg Trials was appointment as his defense lawyer. Israeli Attorney General, Gideon Hausner was the Chief Prosecutor on the case. Eichmann was indicted on 15 criminal charges, which included war crimes, crimes against Jewish people and membership of an outlawed organization.
There were a number of controversies that surfaced before, during and after the Eichmann Case. Eichmann was forcibly abducted from Argentina to be tried under an infrequent extraterritorial and retroactive law. The Legal basis of the Trial was an Israeli law passed in 1950...

Find Another Essay On Embodiment of the Principle of Universal Jurisdiction

Beowulf: The Embodiment of a Modern Day Hero

726 words - 3 pages A hero is defined as a man distinguished courage or ability; someone who is admired for his brave deeds and noble qualities. When people are oppressed by an evil tyrant, a hero will rise above the circumstance, and conquer the evil that has harmed the people he wants to protect. The Anglo Saxon writer produced a great representation of a hero in Beowulf. If alive today, the protagonist Beowulf would be considered a hero. He possess attributes

Defense of the Closure Principle Essay

3076 words - 13 pages Despite the efforts of skeptics, there are no counter-examples that are sufficient in proving that the Closure Principle is invalid. This is Jonathan Vogel’s main argument in his paper, Are There Counterexamples to the Closure Principle? Vogel presents an interesting argument against counterexamples like Fred Dretske’s “Zebra Case”. He introduces a set of conditions required for such counterexamples to work, and in doing so, demonstrates why

The Basic Principle of Flight

1005 words - 5 pages Flight has been a dream of mankind, after the completion of the first powered airplane flight initiative from the Wright brothers, aviation technology is changing rapidly. From ancient light aircraft to a hundred tons airliner or even a fighter jet that flexible than eagle, flying technology has become one of the amazing achievement in science and technology. Aerodynamics is a fundamental principle of flight and civil aircraft unit, in order to

The Basic Principle of Flight

990 words - 4 pages Flight has been a dream of mankind, after the completion of the first powered airplane flight initiative from the Wright brothers, aviation technology is changing rapidly. From ancient light aircraft to a hundred tons airliner or even a fighter jet that flexible than eagle, flying technology has become one of the amazing achievement in science and technology. Aerodynamics is a fundamental principle of flight and civil aircraft unit, in order to

The Acknowledgement of Basic Principle

1069 words - 5 pages Upon consideration for Sho-Dan, I would like to express my gratitude to the ninja lineage for compiling the information through the centuries, maintaining a practical art for the cultivation of the warrior spirit on its many different levels. This appreciation extends a great deal to my most recent personal lineage offering direct impact on modern budo and the battlefield arts. Those most recent are Moko No Tora Takamatsu sensei, Yoshikai

The Universal Expressions of Emotion

1145 words - 5 pages This literature review will aim to discuss the universality of facial expressions of emotion drawing up points from a biological social and psychological view. Focusing on the debate of whether universal facial expressions of emotion exist through the biological perspective and if they don’t through a social perspective. As a result the biological and social perspective will be both merged to clarify the presence of certain universal

The Power of Universal Education

1012 words - 5 pages Time does not wait for anyone who is not quick enough to keep up with it. In order for students to get ahead and succeed, students must learn and study when it is time, not when the students are already out of school. In order for the students to receive the same information, students must all adopt a universal education system. That would mean a standard kindergarten to grade twelve and then post-secondary after-words. A group of people

In What Way is Sherlock Holmes the Embodiment of Victorian Ideas of Progress?

1709 words - 7 pages In What Way Is Sherlock Holmes The Embodiment Of Victorian Ideas Of Progress? “I had no keener pleasure than following Holmes in his professional investigations, and in admiring the rapid deductions, as swift as intuitions, and yet always founded on a logical basis, with which he unravelled the problems which were submitted to him.” The Victorians valued ‘professional’ scientists that were able to make ‘rapid deductions’ to solve

"Medea" by Euripides, the Embodiment of the New Female in Greek Society

1263 words - 5 pages In Euripides' Medea, the protagonist, portrayed as the main character, abandoned the gender roles of ancient Greek society. As a result of this, Euripides invented a new version of the gender "female." Medea defied perceptions of gender by exhibiting "male" characteristics while existing in the bounds of the "female" mentality. Medea brings a sense of manly courage to woman's gender by slaying Creon and Creusa. She brings power and hubris

"Human Nature Is The Embodiment Of Good And Evil - Shakespeare's Macbeth"

1435 words - 6 pages Someone had once said, "Human nature is a mixture of the sham and the true, of kindness and cruelty, of meanness and generosity - of good and evil." In the play Macbeth, this quote is perfectly portrayed in the main characters' actions, their struggles, conflicts, and how they progress in the play. The quote tells the readers that human nature is the embodiment of good and evil. Humans are full of lies yet they are truthful, humans are kind yet

The Principle of Beneficence in Biomedicine

1213 words - 5 pages INTRODUCTION Munyaradzi (2012) critically explores the in-depth weaknesses of beneficence and certain points where it becomes a principle under scrutiny. He begins by blaming ethicists for not exploring the depth of the principle of beneficence in several fields especially in biomedicine. Further, it provides the layman with an introduction to the principle and to how it is used by various health practitioners throughout the world, along with

Similar Essays

The Embodiment Of Suspense Essay

1208 words - 5 pages I cannot exactly place my reasoning, yet it still captivates me nonetheless. Soccer, or football, as most of the world knows it, stands out—at least to me—from virtually all sports. My opinion may be biased after a decade of playing, but there is a good reason I stuck with it for so long. While playing, I found myself to become so impassioned with not just the obvious, drawn-out goals of the game, but also with the paralyzing suspense present in

Shirley Jackson: The Embodiment Of The Supernatural

1932 words - 8 pages words [for] strong protection” to ward off the change she fears is coming (Jackson 63). When Mary finds her father’s notebook she nailed to a tree as a talisman has fallen down, she feels it is a bad omen of impending doom, of which cousin Charles is the embodiment of since his arrival is on the same day. Mary’s use of charms, spells, and the belief in omens, allows Jackson’s superstitions to run wild in We have Always Lived in the Castle

Jurisdiction Of Consumer Protection Essay

1798 words - 7 pages Content This assignment will deal with jurisdiction of consumer protection in the European Union. For the simplicity, the assignment will be divided in few paragraphs that will explain what consumer protection is, what is consumer protection in the European Union, which jurisdiction rules and governs consumer protection issues in EU and national laws of the two Member States, for the comparison – Republic of Croatia and United Kingdom

The Embodiment Of Machiavellian Ideals In Shakespeare's Hamlet

933 words - 4 pages Machiavelli's qualities for a successful Prince, Claudius is the embodiment of the most characteristics. His methods were dexterous, delusive, and strategic, and through them he displayed directness and practically in his struggle to maintain his political power. Although in the end Claudius fails in maintaining his throne against Hamlet's plot, his actions are such that he is clearly more an ideal Machiavellian Prince than Hamlet. In his conquest for vengeance, Hamlet proves himself to be an equal adversary in the art of deception, yet because he lacked the mark of a true Prince according to Machiavelli's standards, he too failed.