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Emerge Of Recombinant Dna Technology Provided

913 words - 4 pages

Emerge of recombinant DNA technology provided an immense potential in the field of plant transformation. Transgenic plants detection in most crop species in order to minimize regeneration of non-transformed tissues after transformation requires the use of selectable marker genes and selective agents. The commonly used selectable markers in plant transformation systems are genes conferring resistance to toxic compounds such as herbicides or antibiotics. The negative selectable marker genes routinely used in Nicotiana tabacum transformation are genes that confer resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. However, the presence of these genes or the derived proteins are undesirable in crop plants ...view middle of the document...

The use of PMI (Phosphomannose isomerase) as a selectable marker has been described in a patent application by Bojsen et al. (1998). Bojsen and coworker (1998) demonstrated that expression of a single bacterial transgene encoding PMI allows a normally Man-sensitive plant to grow on mannose. Phosphomannose isomerase is a key enzyme for mannose metabolism converts mannose-6-phosphate into fructose-6-phosphate, which enters the glycolytic pathway after isomerization to fructose-6-phosphate, thus allows mannose to become a sole carbon source.
The PMI enzyme is widespread in nature, occur in bacteria, yeast, and mammals (including humans), but there are only a few plant species like soybeans and several other legumes where the enzyme presence has been reported (Lee and Matheson, 1984). However, PMI expression in plants is quite variable. While Man is utterly toxic to the growth of plants such as corn and wheat (Wright et al., 2001), measured PMI activity in Nicotiana tabacum suspension cells is relatively low which bring about slow metabolism of Man. These levels seem likely to be representative of tobacco in general, being similar to levels found in tobacco leaves (Barb et al., 2003). The PMI/mannose selection system has been successfully used for the regeneration of transgenic plants from several important crops such as sugar beet (Joersbo et al.,1998), cassava (Zhang and Puonti-Kaerlas 2000), maize (Negrotto et al., 2000; Wright et al., 2001), wheat (Wright et al., 2001), rice (Lucca et al., 2001), Arabidopsis (Todd and Tague, 2001), pepper (Kim et al. 2002), sweet orange (Boscariol et al., 2003), pearl millet (O′Kennedy et al., 2004), tomato (Sigareva et al. 2004), bent grass (Fu et al., 2005), papya (Zhu et al., 2005), almond (Ramesh et al., 2006), onion (Aswath et al., 2006), apple (Degenhardt et al. 2006), cabbage (Min et al. 2007), sugar cane (Jain et al., 2007), flax (Lamblin et al., 2007), tomato and potato (Briza...

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