This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Psychological Androgyny Essay

869 words - 3 pages

In many cultures, expectations are put upon men and women. From birth, boys are expected to be masculine and girls are expected to be feminine. These expectations follow us into adulthood. Although these expectations vary widely, in the United States, more masculine characteristics are valued (Michaelson & Aaland, 1976). Leadership and assertiveness, and other masculine characteristics are valued in work environments and other areas, while more feminine traits such as excessive expression of emotion can be less valuable. However, a combination of these characteristics, or androgyny, allows people to have important leadership skills, but also have empathy and consideration for others, and the ability to address different situations appropriately. Michaelson and Aaland defined androgyny as a combination of self-assertivity and relatedness, self-assertivity being the more masculine characteristic and relatedness being the more feminine trait. It is a combination of sensitive behaviors and controlled emotions. They described masculinity as agency, or having more emotional control and independence, and femininity as communion, or being sensitive to other people. Androgynous people showed characteristics of both.
Psychological androgyny means that one individual can be masculine and feminine at the same time. In certain situations, a person can be assertive, independent and emotional or concerned of the welfare of others (Bem & Martyna, 1976). They also found that college students had more nontraditional responses, meaning that they did not necessarily stick to traditional gender role expectations, and women reported less traditional responses regardless of whether they were among the college group or non-college group.
There are certain traits or characteristics that are generally associated more with one sex or the other (Wiggins & Holzmuller, 1978). Some types of behaviors are more desired in one sex over the other. Beliefs about these traits may have an impact on expectations in relationships and, furthermore, satisfaction in these relationships. Sakalli-Ugurlu (2003) found that men scored higher on attitudes on women’s compliance in a relationship, whereas women scored higher on satisfaction and attitudes toward men’s assertiveness. The study found that men accepted being leaders and decision-makers in their relationships, but also were concerned with satisfaction within it. In Bem’s Sex Role Inventory (Bem, 1974), both sexes were asked to list desirable traits for men and for women. Traits that both sexes viewed as desirable for women were labeled feminine and traits that both sexes viewed as desirable for men were labeled masculine. Androgynous people shared characteristics from both the desired female traits and desired male traits (Wiggins & Holzmuller, 1978). The term “androgyny” would be used to describe only for individuals who score high on both...

Find Another Essay On Psychological Androgyny

Biological Explanation for Anorexia Nervosa Essay

1205 words - 5 pages . environmental experiences, socio-economic backgrounds (class factors). This means that internal validity was low (factors other than the IV may have caused anorexia). At best, that data has shown an association between genetic relatedness and anorexia, but does not provide proof. Psychological explanation for anorexia and bulimia (Behar et al, 2001):Effect of gender identity in causing eating disorders. AIMS

perspective and diversity Essay

858 words - 4 pages can look at others that are outside of you wealth class or any other class then there is no diversity. The other portion that plays a major roll in this passage is discrimination “Unfair or inappropriate treatment of people based on their group membership.” (Beebe, Beebe, and Redmond Pg. 92) In the readings gender “Socially learned and reinforced characteristics that include one’s biological sex and psychological characteristics (femininity

Gender stereotype - Psychology - Theoretical Paper

1069 words - 5 pages to admit that they are feeling fearful and anxious. Ever since the era of the sexual revolution, feminists have been looking for a way to overcome gender stereotypes. The feminists thought of a genderless outlook to be one chief solution. Androgyny is "the combination of masculine and feminine psychological characteristics in an individual." To avoid and to counter the traditional gender stereotypes, it has been suggested that we all possess

Feminism in Adrienne Rich's Poetry

3533 words - 14 pages receptive and men as agentic no longer accords with the poet's experience as a woman. The word androgyny, combining the Greek words for male and female, implies a range of nonpolarized perceptual and behavioral options. Emphasizing this emotional and social continuum rather than antithetical sex roles, many feminists have suggested androgynous behavior as a synthesis of traditional masculine and feminine responses. 7 Recently, Rich has opposed

Gay Child Rearing

1641 words - 7 pages sexual development compared with children who grow up with heterosexual parents.” (Steiner 2002). “Research suggests that the children of gay and lesbian parents have similar psychological adjustment to children growing up in more traditional family structures.” (Ray 1998). According to Perrin (2002), there are definitely differences in the life experiences of heterosexual and homosexual parented children, but these include no negative effects. It

Feminist Therapy: A critical review of implications and contributions to counseling

4528 words - 18 pages happy.references:Baker, N. L. (1996). Class as a construct in a "classless" society. Women &Therapy, 18, 13-23.Bem, S. L. (1975). Sex-role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 634-643Bem, S. L. (1977). On the utility of alternative procedures for assessing psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 196-205Biddulph, S. (1995). Manhood: An action plan for

The Difference between Gender Identity and Gender Role

1597 words - 6 pages . American Biologist Alfred Kinsey talks about sexology because he did sex research into human sexuality in 1947. Individual adults or even children are conflicted about who they want to be and what gender they were born. If anything that many psychologists have taught us different information about gender and human sexuality over the years as it has evolved. Human sexuality is psychological aspects such as gender identity, expression and variant people

Gender Stereotypes in Science and Technology

1605 words - 6 pages -role identification in children and teenagers. None of the articles from the latter category were published after 1980. One of the more interesting articles which I found was entitled "Masculinity, femininity, androgyny, and cognitive performance: A meta-analysis," and was published in volume 100 of Psychological Bulletin. In this study, Margaret Signorella and Wesley Jamison evaluated the hypothesis set forth by SC Nash in the 1975 article

Gender Inequality in Modern Society

1597 words - 6 pages the 20th century these views began to slowly change but still stained with the ideologies from the past they still exist at the brink of the 21st century" . Lawrence Pervin, Professor of Psychology at the Princeton University contends that "up until 1954 researchers tended to ignore female workers as subjects of their research. From 1954 to 1966 sex-role measures developed. From 1974 to 1982 androgyny was established as sex-role ideal" . Another

Literary Analysis of Fight Club

1867 words - 8 pages self-destruction is the answer” (Palahniuk 124). He destroyed himself when he got involved with Marla. This made him a psychological case because he could not even remember if he had sex with Marla or it was Tyler Durden. He became obsessed with Marla and could not stop inviting her over for sexual intercourse. The narrator lost control of himself because of this character Marla Singer. The narrator describes his obsession to Marla by saying, “If

Elaine Showalter-The Female Tradition

2604 words - 10 pages by rejection of male culture moving towards separationist literature focusing on inner space and psychological interrogation rather than being socially focused so as to escape the materialistic, harsh realities of the patriarchal world. The metaphor explored by many female writers for this motif was 'the enclosed and secret room' which 'extended the fantasies of enclosure' in the form of secret rooms, hideaway attics and suffragette cells as

Similar Essays

Slash Fanfiction, Homosexuality, And Gender Essay

932 words - 4 pages sexuality. Not only is this somewhat of a double standard, it seems quite ridiculous to make assumptions regarding sexuality based on attire. A blatant expression of androgyny would be people who crossdress, and transgendered people. A person may be biologically male, yet choose the attire of a typical female. Transgendered people may also be genetically one sex, but physically and/or mentally the other sex. Back to the double standard example, why is

Questioning Ambi Sexuality Essay

1441 words - 6 pages these people's lives, there is a psychological impact. There are no sexual expectations they have to live up to: men do not have to try to be masculine; women do not have to try to be feminine. A large portion of deriving one's status in society can come from filling sexual roles: men try to be providers, be strong; women trying to be good care givers, nurturers. From one point of view, "it is a novel about women, women's lives, and the meaning

A Feminist Analysis Of Snow, Fire, Sword

2104 words - 8 pages perspective of gender stereotype are considered fit for the story. Gender stereotype itself is “beliefs about the psychological traits and characteristics of, as well as the activities appropriate to, men or women” (Brannon, 2011). People tend to associate adventurous things with men instead of women because men have been traditionally socialized to be strong, active, and aggressive. On the contrary, female characters may not be suitable for the story

Androgyny In The Characters Of Macbeth And Lady Macbeth

2329 words - 9 pages Androgyny in the Characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth        In her book, Woman and Gender in Renaissance Tragedy, Dympna Callaghan addresses the presentation of women in Elizabethan England, stating that "women were clearly socially subordinate, and the preponderance of discourse on the gender hierarchy was misogynistic" (Callaghan 12). According to Marianne L. Novy in Love's Argument: Gender Relations in Shakespeare: "'Woman' seems to