Psychological Explanations Of One Anxiety Disorder

1092 words - 4 pages

Psychological Explanations of One Anxiety Disorder

Phobias are an example of an anxiety disorder and the psychological
explanations of these are cognitive, psychodynamic, behavioral and
social factors. The Behavioral, Psychodynamic and social factors of
the psychological explanation will be discussed in greater detail.

Behavioral explanations say that all behaviour is learnt whether it is
normal or abnormal and this approach has been applied to humans and
animals. There are three theories that make up the behaviorist
approach, which are classical and operant conditioning, Social
Learning and information transmission. Classical conditioning is
concerned with a classical, neutral and conditioned stimulus and the
fear is due to a learnt association. Operant conditioning is
involuntary behaviour reinforcement and punishment, by rewards or
attention given. Evidence for this is Little Albert, who developed a
fear of white rats and anything else white after been conditioned by a
loud noise been produced when he played with the rat. Barlow and
Durand found that 50% of driving phobics had had a traumatic driving
experience and Keuthan found that half of all phobics could not
remember a bad experience. Dunado discovered similar results in that
he found that 50% of dog phobics had not had a traumatic experience
with dogs. This research is flawed in many aspects because it does not
explain why only some people develop phobias, it relies on memory,
which could be unreliable, and it is unethical as there is unnecessary
distress to humans and animals. Social learning is the next theory in
the behavioral explanation and this says that modeling, which is
behaviour been learnt by watching other people’s reactions is the
reason for developing the phobia. For example if a child sees its
mother reacting in a fearful way towards a spider they too will react
in that particular way. Evidence for this comes from Bandura who
observed the reactions of fake electrical shocks been given with a
buzzer. Maneeka found that when mothers reacted to snakes in a bad way
the child developed a phobia of snakes in later life. There are demand
characteristics with this research, as the researchers will be
expecting a particular outcome and the people may already have a fear
of a particular object or situation. Also the outcomes cannot be
applied to every phobia i.e. claustrophobia therefore it is limited.
Information Transmission is the last theory for the psychological
explanations of phobias. This is when fear producing information about
the phobic object leads to the development of the particular phobia.
Ost (1985) described the case of a woman who was a severe snake
phobic. She had been told repeatedly about the dangers of snakes and
had been strongly encouraged to wear rubber boots to protect herself.
...

Find Another Essay On Psychological Explanations of One Anxiety Disorder

A Comparison of Biological and Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia

743 words - 3 pages A Comparison of Biological and Psychological Explanations of Schizophrenia Both the biological and the psychological explanations of schizophrenia are supported by empirical evidence which justify their explanations. However ,within the biological explanation there is the genetic explanation which is used largely based on scientific research such as that of Gottesman’s research using meta-analysis which looked at

A Critical Discussion of the Psychological Explanations of Prejudice

1888 words - 8 pages negative way. There are many explanations of prejudice given by psychologists and I will write about these in my essay. One psychological theory by Stephan and Stephen called Integrated Threat Theory of Prejudice describes how fear can cause prejudice. This fear has a few sources, one being that a person has the belief that the other person will do them harm, another is the other persons attitude will challenge their own

Explain the biological explanations of one of more eating disorders.

1518 words - 6 pages precedes it; this delayed gastric emptying can maintain and worsen anorexia. One criticism of this study however, is that it does not make clear why food reduction causes gastric emptying; it merely suggests that the mechanism may have evolved for its survival value as it increases the efficiency of nutrient absorption.Biological explanations for eating disorders are generally weak as all of the studies amount to evidence showing that biological factors are insignificant before the onset of an eating disorder and are moreover a consequence rather than a cause.BibliographyPsychology - Richard D. Gross

Describe and Discuss One or More Explanations of Divided Attention

1280 words - 5 pages Divided attention refers to the ability to divide ones attention between two or more tasks. The focused attention models explain how all our inputs are focused on one task at any one time, however it is clear from looking at everyday life that we are able to divide our attention, successfully being able to complete more than one task at the same time. There are two main explanations of divided attention, one is the modular theories and the one I

Is there strong evidence for the use of psychological therapy for treating anxiety disorders?

1963 words - 8 pages Is there strong evidence for the use of psychological therapy for treating anxiety disorders?The following essay will discuss whether or not psychological therapy is effective for treating anxiety disorder. To show strong evidence that it is effective, the efficacy of psychological therapy for children and adolescents, and the comparison between different treatments are being studied.Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, which people have

Is there strong evidence for the use of psychological therapy for treating anxiety disorders?

2078 words - 8 pages of the drug and makes it less effective.Overall, although drug therapy can be used to stop an anxiety disorder quickly, they are only able to treat the disorder. In comparison, psychological therapies are able to reduce anxiety disorders to the extent that a patient may no longer suffer from one. Psychological therapies take longer to work on the disorder but rarely have any side-effects so therefore are more beneficial. Based on the research

Describe and evaluate one or more psychodynamic explanations of personality development.

735 words - 3 pages One of the key elements of Freud's theory of personality development is conflict, and to understand how these conflicts arise we first have to look at the structure of the personality. Freud believed that personality has three parts, known as the tripartite. Firstly the id, this contains innate sexual and aggressive instincts and is located in the unconscious mind. The id works in accordance with the pleasure principle, with the emphasis being

Exploring Psychological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour

2311 words - 9 pages delinquency (West & Farrington, 1973; Wadsworth, 1979; Fischer, 1984). An early study on the subject by West & Farrington (1973, cited in Patrick, 2006), proposes that four or more siblings in the family is one of the strongest predictors of delinquency. The theoretical underpinning for it is that as the number of children in a family increases, several other issues such as diminished attention given to each child and diminished supervision

Bridging Environmental, Psychological and Biological Mechanisms for effective treatment of PTSD and Schizophrenic mental disorder

603 words - 3 pages and Biological Mechanisms for effective treatment of PTSD and Schizophrenic mental disorder. One quote comes instantly to mind when examining this topic. I mean of course the words of award winning journalist Elijah Rock 'I don't believe in ghosts, but I do believe in democracy.' [2] This quotation leads me to suspect that he was not unaccustomed to Bridging Environmental, Psychological and Biological Mechanisms for effective treatment of PTSD

Disorder of Donnie Darko, choose a movie with a main character that has a psychological disorder and give a full diagnosis.

875 words - 4 pages schizophrenia is one of the most damaging of all mental disorders. It causes it's victims to lose touch with reality as Donnie does with his ideas of time travel. They often begin to hear, see, or feel things that aren't really there, or hallucinations which Donnie often experiences. They also become convinced of things that simply are not true which are delusions. In the paranoid form of this disorder, they develop delusions of persecution or personal

Essay question: Assess the evidence fot and against teh central character of 'Strange Objects', Steven Messenger, having a psychological disorder.

889 words - 4 pages In the novel 'Strange Objects' by Gary Crew, many questions are asked but few are answered. One of the questions raised in the novel concerns the mental state of the central character, Steven Messenger. Steven's behaviour throughout the novel gives reason to believe that he suffers from a severe psychological disorder, most likely schizophrenia or depre3ssion. However, this theory has many 'supernatural-shaped' holes that can only be filled by

Similar Essays

Choose One Anxiety Disorder, And Evaluate The Types Of Treatment Used, And Their Effectiveness.

2149 words - 9 pages implicated in OCD.Freud, believed that obsessions are defensive psychological responses and that attempts to prevent such behaviour would at best produce symptom substitution, and at worst, cause psychotic breakdown.Now that we have looked at the different explanations of OCD we will look at the various therapies and drugs, and their effectiveness in controlling the disorder. Many people have difficulty finding effective therapy for OCD, either for

The Psychological Explanations Of Rape Essay

1005 words - 4 pages are less likely to use marital rape as a definition of rape. In this essay I aim to outline three main psychological explanations for the causes of rape, which are: the evolutionary approach, the feminist approach and the social learning approach. Earlier explanations of rape by Dizinno and Thornhill (1986) have explained it as an evolved, facultative behaviour that is condition- dependent. In this view, rape may be engaged in by men who are

The Rise Of Anxiety Disorder Essay

1490 words - 6 pages As the world leaps into the future, it seems that mental illness is becoming more of a problem among many people. One of the most common types of illness's among the current population is anxiety disorders. It is evident that there is a rise of anxiety disorder among the Western World. There are three main factors that contribute to this, they include our education system, technology and media, and the treatment and decreasing criticism anxiety

Symptoms Of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Essay

1932 words - 8 pages Generalized Anxiety Disorder About three percent of men and women in the U.S. suffer from Generalized anxiety disorder (APAA). It is one of the most common forms of anxiety and seems to be the most left untreated because people don’t know that it can be treated (McGradles). GAD, although it affects many, is a disorder that can be detrimental to the quality of life of an individual. With the regard to the quality of life, the level of severity