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Emphasizing Ethical Leadership Practices Essay

1110 words - 4 pages

STRATEGIC LEADERSHIPSession 14:Emphasizing Ethical Leadership PracticesDisusun oleh:Roki'inMAGISTER MANAJEMENFAKULTAS EKONOMIKA DAN BISNISUNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADAYOGYAKARTA2014Hal | 2EXECUTIVE SUMMARYEthical leadership and the psychology of decision makingPerubahan lingkungan bisnis saat ini menimbulkan tantangan etika bagi eksekutif. Keputusan bisnis yang tidak etis mungkin tidak hanya berasal dari trade-off antara etika dan laba atau dari ketidakpedulian terhadap berperasaan kepentingan atau kesejahteraan orang lain, tapi juga dari kecenderungan psikologis yang mendorong pengambilan keputusan yang buruk, baik dari etika dan perspektif rasional.Tiga jenis teori yang digunakan oleh para eksekutif dalam membuat keputusan yaitu: teori tentang dunia, teori tentang orang lain, dan teori tentang diri kita sendiri. Teori tentang dunia mengacu pada keyakinan yang kami miliki tentang bagaimana dunia bekerja, sifat jaringan kausal di mana kita hidup, dan cara-cara di mana keputusan kita mempengaruhi dunia. Aspek penting dari teori-teori kita tentang dunia melibatkan keyakinan kita tentang probabilistik (atau deterministik) tekstur dunia dan persepsi kita tentang sebab-akibat. Teori tentang orang lain adalah keyakinan terorganisir kita tentang bagaimana "kita" berbeda dari "mereka." Menariknya, "mereka" mungkin pesaing, karyawan, regulator, atau orang asing, dan siapa pun yang "kita" hari ini mungkin "mereka" besok. Keyakinan kita tentang orang lain mempengaruhi cara di mana kita membuat penilaian dan keputusan tentang orang lain, dan pengaruh ini sering tidak sadar. Akhirnya, kita semua benar percaya bahwa kita adalah pribadi yang unik. Namun, teori-teori tentang diri kita sendiri membawa pada keyakinan yang tidak realistis tentang diri kita sendiri yang dapat menyebabkan kita meremehkan eksposur terhadap risiko, mengambil lebih dari andil untuk sukses (atau terlalu sedikit untuk kegagalan), atau terlalu yakin bahwa teori dunia kita adalah yang benar. Jika sebagian besar eksekutif dalam suatu organisasi berpikir bahwa mereka berada di atas 10 persen dari distribusi bakat, ada potensi untuk kekecewaan meresap.Teori tentang duniaSetiap manajer harus memiliki pengetahuan yang akurat tentang dunia. Jika seorang manajer memiliki penilaian yang buruk tentang konsekuensi atas suatu kebijakan maka kebijakan itu bisa menjadi api yang menyerang balik atas pengambil keputusan. Ada 3 komponen penting yang harus dipelajari dalam teori tentang dunia :The Cascade of ConsequencesDalam setiap mengambil suatu keputusan, pasti ada konsekuensi yang akan diambil. dan manusia sering kali memiliki kecenderungan untuk menghindari suatu konsekuensi dalam pengambilan keputusan. Dalam upaya untuk menghindari keputusan dapat mengarah pada 5 bias :Ignoring low-probability eventsLimiting the search for stakeholdersIgnoring the possibilityDiscunting the futureUndervaluing collective outcomesThe Judgment of RiskTeori tentang dunia akan menjadi tidak akurat jika mereka secara sistematis...

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