Employee Performance Indicators
The term performance is a relative term and need to be associated with the subject under discussion. For example its three broad kinds with reference to the current study are the employee, whose performance may be measure in an individual status. The team status of an employee for the measurement of performance is another perspective. Kirkman & Rosen (1999) found that in order for an organizational teams to be highly effective, their members must experience meaningfulness, and impact. This attachment of individual to the contribution of performance in relation to any other constituency including the team, organization etc as discussed earlier in this chapter with reference to the multiple focus of commitment. Since the researchers have associated individual performance to the objectives of the organization the following literature is associated with perception of individual employee performance for the contribution to the multiple constituencies including the organization effectiveness.
The term ‘employee performance’ represents the duties, activities and accomplishment of an employee during his work experience in an organization. Most of the researchers state the employee performance as a ‘mean’ to achieve the ends for an organization for example the objective of customer satisfaction (Borucki & Burke, 1999; Johnson, 1996). Hence, a lot of research work has been conducted to figure out the causes as well as the condition for employees to improve their performance at work (Mount, Barrick & Stewart, 1998; Liao. H and Chuang A., 2004). These performance characteristic of an employee have been viewed by the researches in two perspective. The first is the in-role performance and the second is the ex-role performance (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Fetter 1991; Netemeyer et al. 1997; Podsakoff and MacKenzie 1994, Motowidlo et al., 1997, Bateman and Organ 1983; Moorman 1991; Munene 1995; Organ 1988, 1990; Organ and Ryan 1995; Smith, Organ, and Near 1983 , Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995). As there is no clear cut lines between the two types. Still in general the duties and responsibilities that as performed by employees that are very well stated in the job description are considered as the in-role performance of an employee. The jobs performed by an employee which fall in the implicit or explicit job description and go beyond the line of duty are considered as the ex-role performance. David Hakala (2008) present a total of 16 indicator to measure employee performance both in-role and ex-role.
Bridges (1994) argues that the jobs today as a fixed collection of task and responsibilities are disappearing and the employee’s role in a job are being broaden. These broader roles have made jobs more challenging and require a greater variety of skills and an ability to adapt to the demands of the situation. Hammer and Champy (1993) have pointed out the reduction of management and the flattening of the organizational...