The advent of new forms of employee management, such as HRM, alongside shifting industrial structures to a service-dominated economy, declining trade union power and influence, political antipathy towards the union movement, greater individualisation and flexibility in the management of labour and changing social attitudes have created a more diverse employment landscape. Employment relations in certain countries changes over time by several factors
Conceptual Framework developed by Frage and Kelly explained the conditions under which certain sets of variables are more or less successful in explaining attributes of work and employment and in particular how we can account for change in employment relations. Under the framework, there are 5 actors that should take into account for changes in employment relations, which is employment actores that includes traditional agent ( employers, workers and state), non traditional actor (workers centres and NGO). Under this actor it was explained employers are not only interested in short-term profit-maximixing but also in long-term sustainability.
Second is Power resources of the employment actors, employers have control of the means of production and are therefore more powerful than workers, in employment relations actors power is inevitably influenced by a variety of factors, market forces (the state of the economy and by political forces (political parties and policies).
Employment instituition interpreted as norms and rules, this instituition taken to comprise labour laws, collective bargaining institution and arbitration bodies, this also can include broader economic institution such as free trade zones or trade agreements. Instituition do not rigidly determine individual actions but rather establish trajectiones for possible actions.
The international environment also one of the actors, until to what extent ILO and IMF have influenced the industrial relations in certain countries. Global financial and product markets, patterns of labour migration, global politics and institution including European Union (EU), World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) increasingly shape national employment regimes. This institution had a significant impact on the development of the employment relations in certain countries such as impact of World Bank in Asia and South of America. Ideas, Ideologies or Identities refers to the broad concept the the economic culture of a country, thus to the prevalent societal ideas on private property, ownership, employment at will, industrial democracy, workers dignity, justice, privacy, trust or social capital.
In view of its focus on enterprise-level business strategy, it is not surprising that those working in a strategic-choice perspective have devoted little attention to the role of the state. The focus of strategic-choice research on employment relations at the enterprise level is represented in Boxall and Purcell (2003) where the close link between Human...