This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Emulsion Studies Essay

1397 words - 6 pages

The system of primary interest in this study was water-in-diluted Athabasca bitumen films. Formation of very stable water-in-oil emulsions is a major challenge for recovery of bitumen from oil sand deposits in Alberta-Canada. Emulsion studies 14-17 and works on single emulsion films 18,19 have shown that emulsion and film stability depends on type of solvent and solvent to bitumen (S/B) ratio. Furthermore, it was found that film behavior changes dramatically at so called critical (S/B) ratio 20, which coincides with formation of asphaltenes precipitates in solutions. In our previous work [] we studied the stability of water-in-diluted films as a function of bitumen content at different aromaticity of the solvent. Aromaticity of the solvent was modeled by mixing heptane and toluene at different ratios. In that previous work, we characterized film stability using film lifetimes and rate of thinning. Here we report results for the same system, Athabasca bitumen diluted with toluene and heptane and their mixtures, but film stability is studied by means of electric polarization of single emulsion film.
Critical voltages of film rupture were measured for different solvent mixtures and S/B ratios. For sake of relevance to the industrial applications, electric field was applied on draining films. The effect of film thickness (time of application of ramp potential) on critical voltage is reported. Experimental results are further discussed in relation to mechanism of film rupture and implications to the electro-induced coalescence.
Theoretical background: Effect of DC Polarization on film drainage and stability
Maxwell stress. Let us consider a dielectric layer with thickness h placed in aqueous electrolyte solution considered as ideal conductor. In electric filed, the force exerted on the dielectric layer is formulated in terms of Korteweng-Helmhotz [] body force density and corresponding Maxwell stress tensor []. For incompressible and electrically linear liquid :
(1a)
(1b)
Where E is electric field, ρf is volume density of free electric charge, ε is permittivity. In Expression of the Maxwell stress tensor is Kronecker delta function.

The component in direction i of the total force that acts on the body can be calculated as a volume integral of or as a surface integral of Maxwell stress tensor over a surface enclosing that S :
(2)
We assume that ρf=0 and the electrolyte solution is considered ideal conductor. The solution of the problem shows [] that equal, and oppositely directed forces, act at each interface (defined as the plane where discontinuation of permittivity occur). The forces are directed toward the media with lower permittivity. The result is an extra pressure in the film due the electric field PE. and an In terms of additional pressure
(3)
where εf is dielectric constant of film liquid, εo= 8.854 × 10-12 F/m is permittivity of free space. It is assumed also that the...

Find Another Essay On Emulsion Studies

The Treatment of Microbial Infections Through New Antibiotics

2083 words - 9 pages -inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer activities shown from in vitro studies.[1,3] According to the IUPAC nomenclature, they can be classified into: • ‘‘Flavonoids'', derived from 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure (examples: quercetin, rutin). • ''Isoflavonoids'', derived from 3-phenylchromen-4-one (3-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure • ''Neoflavonoids'', derived from 4-phenylcoumarine (4-phenyl-1,2-benzopyrone

Statement of Intent Essay

1013 words - 5 pages Wei Yaoze Mechanical engineering I started out as an economics student, and obtained a BA degree in economics. Years of extensive reading and quantitative training offered me thinking tools for future studies. This time, I decided to take engineering as my next goal. This idea first came up when I was working on a Sinopec’s drilling site on the Sumatra Island in Indonesia. In the wilderness, I was lost and overwhelmed in the tearing sound of

Immobilisation of Enzimes

1431 words - 6 pages (K2CO3) as activator [20,21]. After amination of PES was performed, the polymer was casted into the membrane. Membrane-catalyzed reactions occurred at the oil-water interface and commonly performed in emulsion reactors. Involvement of lipase in emulsion reactors will result in negative effect economically and technically. One of effects that commonly happened was the decrease of the lipase activity because of product contamination or intensive

Development of isradipine loaded self-nano emulsifying powders for improved oral delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

1665 words - 7 pages globule size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and comparing them with the results obtained for SNEF. The globule size of the emulsion formed form the SNEPN was found to be 35.8±0.21nm with polydispersity index of 0.17±0.05 and zeta potential of -10.3±0.1mV. The size analysis results of SNEP when compared with SNEF were not statistically significant (<0.05) indicating the preservation of the self-emulsification ability of SNEF even after

Soy protein-stabilized nanoemulsions and soy protein nanocomplexes as potential delivery systems for poorly water-soluble lipophilic substances

1977 words - 8 pages In recent studies, there has been a considerable interest in the development of novel drug delivery systems using nanotechnology. There is growing interest in developing protein nanocarriers as GRAS (generally regarded as safe) drug delivery devices due to their exceptional characteristics such as biodegradability, high nutritional value, abundant renewable sources and extraordinary binding capacity of various drugs. Soy protein is abundant

Technologies Used In Development Of Immunocontrace

4411 words - 18 pages experimental immunization studies in animals and humans. Deliberate immunization of male or female animals of various species and humans with preparations of autologous or isologous spermatozoa or mature testes results in infertility by causing fertilization failure. Second line of evidence is provided by studies of involuntary immunoinfertility. Up to 70% of vasectomized men form antisperm antibodies (ASA) and up to 30% cases of infertility is

Cleaning up after the exxon valdez was a mistake

1363 words - 5 pages simulate the effects of waves and tides, contact with seawater gave the black, sticky oil "the fluffy appearance of a flocculated emulsion" that no longer strongly adheres well to sediment, Bragg reports. Seawater made up about 80 percent of these cloud-like aggregates. The rest consisted largely of mineral grains stably bound to oil droplets 1 to 10 microns in diameter. (Beached) For instance, the Exxon scientists found that flocculation can increase

History of Film Production

2809 words - 12 pages Upon receiving the brief for our Multimedia Studies assignment, Group 11 members arranged at a date for everyone to meet together to discuss the presentation project. We all had an interest in the film aspect of the media sector, so we decided our project would relate to the film industry. Being more specific about our project topic, we chose to base our presentation on film production. With six members, it was necessary to distribute the

Experimental investigation on Zirconium oxide with engine Oil 20W40

2172 words - 9 pages , No. 1, 2011. 14. Puthiyandi Vinisha Valsaraj, Chathoth Janardanan, “Comparative studies on Proton conducting nature of Copper selective tin Zirconium phosphate Cation exchanger with its single Salts counter parts”, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences ISSN 2231-606X, Vol. 4, Jan 2014 15. Mei-Hwa Lee, Cliord Y. Tai, Chung-Hsin Lu, “Synthesis of Spherical Zirconia by Precipitation between Two Water/Oil Emulsion”, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 1999. 16. Bakunin VN, Suslov AY, Kuzmina GN, Parenago OP, Topchiev AV, “Synthesis and application of inorganic nanoparticles as lubricant components – a review”, J Nanopart Res 6:273–284, 2004.

Oxygen Therapy

4130 words - 17 pages capacity, alveolar hypoventilation, or even rapidly opening and closing vessel walls. These conditions may collectively result in a problem known as hypoxia within cancerous growths, which limits the effectiveness of radiation therapy (Teicher and Rose, 1984; Tarpy and Farber, 1994). The problem of hypoxia can be a major setback in the administration of radiation therapy, but the use of oxygen-carrying perfluorochemical emulsion (PFCE) is

The Dance of The Body without Organs

2512 words - 10 pages I have been developing The “Dance of the Body w/o Organs” since 1998. By aspiring to a creative process that is complex and liquid I have created an emulsion of catalysts characterized by shifting emphases between artistic practice, scientific inquiry, teaching, reading, writing, and critical thinking. The process is a mobius strip where one discipline flows over another. This essay serves a double function: 1). As a modest line of flight

Similar Essays

Development Of Isradipine Loaded Self Nano Emulsifying Powders For Improved Oral Delivery: In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation

1257 words - 6 pages CS (Oil), Capmul MCM L8 (surfactant) and Cremophor EL (co-surfactant) with high drug solubility and tested for phase behavior. An earlier report suggests that combination of surfactant with cosurfactant is more effective in producing emulsion with small globule size than surfactant alone.32 A ternary phase diagram (Figure 1) was constructed based on the results of phase behavior studies to optimize the concentration of oil, surfactant and co

Development Of Isradipine Loaded Self Nano Emulsifying Powders For Improved Oral Delivery: In Vitro And In Vivo Evaluation

1224 words - 5 pages The samples of ISR (20 L) were injected in to the column maintained at room temperature. Solubility studies ISR solubility was estimated in different vehicles (oils and surfactants) according to the earlier reported method17 to screen the suitable oil, surfactant and co surfactant with highest solubility. Increasing amounts of ISR was added into the vials containing vehicles (2 mL) with agitation using cyclomixer until the precipitate of drug was

Application Of The Theory Of Continuity

694 words - 3 pages In the theoretical part of the work there was an extensive review of the subject literature. Number of aspects of the emulsions’ stability and phenomena associated with phases’ separation (creaming, sedimentation, flocculation, coalescence) were described. The basic issues related to the traffic theory (engineering) were also presented. In the experimental part of the work studies of emulsions’ stability were conducted. Dispersed phases

Developments To Hydrogels Made From 2 Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate

703 words - 3 pages material to be used in contact lenses. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. There have been a lot of work done on Xanthan gum (GX), it has very good thickening properties of aqueous salts solutions. These are used as emulsifiers which contain hydrophilic and hydrophobic region thus they adsorb rapidly at the oil-water interface and consequently stabilize the emulsion through steric and/or electrostatic