Endothelial Cells Essay

2255 words - 9 pages

Introduction
If the endothelium were to be considered an organ, it would be without a doubt the largest, with its 6 trillion cells, area of 5000m2, and 1kg weight. With knowledge of the endothelium stemming back to the early 1600s with William Harvey’s work on the circulation as a closed circuit with a pump and Marcello Malpighi’s observations of blood capillaries, the focus over the next 400 years was mainly on the pump itself, leading to the creation of a major clinical field – cardiology. Although scientists were aware of blood vessels and their role in circulation, it wasn’t until the early 1960s that the endothelium was able to be seen with electron microscopy and therefore be differentiated and characterized.1 The recognition of endothelial cells with diverse structures and functions led to an overwhelming increase in research and interest in this field, and it is now well-established that endothelial cells make up a rather active cell layer, and are highly adapted to their microenvironment. In particular, a specific growth factor VEGF has been found to be unquestionably relevant to nearly all endothelial disorders.
Role and Classification of the Endothelium
It is widely known that the endothelium plays a role in nearly every disease state ranging from cancers in hematology-oncology and sepsis in infectious disease to hepatitis and strokes, in gastroenterology and neurology, respectively. Consequently, one cannot rely solely on the mechanisms an endothelial cell from one location as a model and predictor of structure and function of another, as it is recognized that there are a diverse amount of phenotypes, each differing from one another.2 As “endotheliology” is not a recognized clinical discipline, most knowledge concerning the endothelium has been obtained from research of its microenvironment by specialists in their respective fields. Hematologists are all-too aware of the role of the endothelium in atherosclerosis, while hepatologists recognize the important of sinusoidal endothelial cells for liver regeneration. The uniqueness of the endothelium coupled with the difficulties caused by a lack of a clinical field has lead to a series of unforeseen and surprising discoveries.
The simple classification of the endothelial cells themselves pose challenges. The endothelium is, anatomically speaking, the inner lining of the blood and lymphatic vessels.3 However, many characteristic structures such as fenestrae are not present on every endothelial cell, and other features, e.g. caveolae, are not specific to the endothelium. There are also other cells that form the inner lining of the blood vessels, and therefore molecular markers are instead being used to differentiate. Furthermore, endothelial cells arise from the mesoderm via hemangioblasts, however they may differentiate instead into hematopoietic stem cells, and the endothelial progenitors may themselves differentiate into other cell lineages. Due to these difficulties endothelial...

Find Another Essay On Endothelial Cells

Matrix Metalloproteinases Essay

1198 words - 5 pages respect to myocardial MMP expression and left ventricular (LV) remodeling process [3-9]. Likewise, recent reports on endothelial culture cells [10-12] and animal models of CHF [13,14] have shown that the increase of expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 (called gelatinases) might also play an important role in the impairement of endothelial function, a key event contributing on morbidity and mortality in CHF patients [15]. However, data

Preventing Postoperative Infections in Contaract Surgery

1973 words - 8 pages simple cuboidal cells, specialized in ion transport mechanisms and involved in the regulation of corneal hydration. Endothelial cell proliferation is common during development, forming a monolayer of hexagonal cells arranged in a mosaic pattern. However, human corneal endothelium cells (HCECs) exhibit an age-related decrease in proliferative capacity, probably associated with stress-induced premature senescence as a result of exposure to

The Pharmacology of Statins

2604 words - 11 pages rejection, reverting of tumor cells, osteoporosis and risk of fracture which increases the quality life of the patient [14,15]. The present review is focused on the role of statins in improving the endothelial function. Endothelial dysfunction and statins (Non-Cholesterol Dependent Effects of Statins) Endothelium is a single cell layer of simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the heart, the blood and lymph vessels and the serous cavities

Micro Ribonucleic Acid Analysis

709 words - 3 pages resulted in 50 percent of mice being killed. Micro RNA 23, 24, 27 are highly present in endothelial cells and vascularized tissues. Knockdown of micro RNA 23 and micro RNA 27 suppressed endothelial migration in response to vascular endothelial growth factor and cell proliferation. Zhou and his team found that micro RNA 23 and micro RNA 27 mediated angiogenesis through suppression of Sprouty 2, Semaphorin6A (Sema6A), and Semaphorin6D (Sema6D) (67

Therapuetic

1072 words - 5 pages expression of angiogenic genes [1], supplying potent angiogenic factors and delivering progenitor or stem cells [2]. Exogenous angiogenic growth factors are induced to stimulate the growth of collateral vessels to ischemic tissues. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Fibroblast growth factors (FGF), Angiopoietin, Hepatocyte growth factor, Insulin-like growth factor, Interleukin 8, Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), Proliferin, Thyroxine

Notch Proteins and Kaposi's Sarcoma

1095 words - 4 pages is stunted and KS is forced to go through apoptosis, or programmed cellular death. GSI Effects within the in vitro portion of the Experiment Endothelial cells, or precursors to KS cells, and SLK cells derived from the KS cell line were both treated with GSI for a period between 24-48 hours. After the treatment, the cells were examined for growth arrest and apoptosis. Results showed that the normal endothelial cells were resistant to GSI. Only

PREVELANCE OF MASKED HYPERTENSION İN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS AND CORRELATION WITH HBA1C LEVELS

916 words - 4 pages most important limitation of the present study is that endothelial functions were not measured due a limited budget. Previous work has demonstrated that ADMA causes endothelial dysfunction via suppression of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) [26]. EPCs are circulating immature cells that contribute to vascular homeostasis Fig. 1. Receiver operating curve of ADMA levels to predict of MHT. 4 A. Taner et al. / Atherosclerosis xxx (2013) 1e6 Please cite this article in press as: Taner A, et al., The value of serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels for the determination of masked hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus, Atherosclerosis (2013),

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Treatment of Heart Disease

1196 words - 5 pages ability to turn into specialized heart muscle cells, prompting new growth to repair damaged tissue (Lasala and Minguell, Bone Marrow 171). Cell therapies for vital organs would not be possible without stem cells with this capability. Mesenchymal stem cells also have the ability to become endothelial cells. Endothelial cells are flat cells that form the inside lining of blood vessels. These cells help form new blood vessels through a process called

Diabetes Mellitus and Renal Hypoxia

1024 words - 5 pages cells, whereas HIF-2 α is expressed in peritubular cells, renal interstitional fibroblasts and endothelial cells.   Effects of renal hypoxia 1. Regulation of erythropoiesis by hypoxia Human EPO is heavily glycosylated structure, consists of 165 amino acids and has a molecular mass of about 30 kDa, 40% of which is derived from its carbohydrate component. The location of

Clinical Trail Microncrision Contaract Sugery (MICS)

979 words - 4 pages 1 mg/0.1ml solution. Age, sex, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), refraction, (BCVA), corneal clarity, anterior chamber reaction (cells and flare), pachymetry, intraocular pressure (IOP), endothelial cell density (ECD), coefficient of variation in cell area and percentage of hexagonality were compared between both groups. Postoperative examiner was blinded to the group assignment. Surgical Technique Pupils were dilated with repeated doses of

Statins: Plethora of beneficial effects or is it a myth?”

523 words - 3 pages about 29% was observed in high-dose statin therapy in ACS patients after just 5 days. Statin also found to repair damaged endothelium by promoting endothelial progenitor cells mobilization and up-regulate nitric oxide synthase expression. Subsequent increase in NO production prevents platelet aggregation, reduce leucocyte-endothelium interaction and preserve endothelial functions. In addition, statin reduces C-Reactive proteins (enhance monocyte

Similar Essays

Review Mechanism By Which Endothelial Cells Contribute Inflammation In Key Diseases

988 words - 4 pages Endothelial cells are originated from embryonic mesoderm. It is a thin layer of cells found in the body like in the blood vessels, heart and coverings of organs. It regulates permeability of blood flow all around the body and maintain vascular homeostasis. If the body is not well taken care of due to stressful lifestyle and not taking proper meals, endothelial cells can be inflamed and damaged leading to key disease such as artherosclerosis

Endothelial Progenitor Cells: An Insight Into Their Therapeutic Role In Cardiovascular Disease & Biomarker Potential

914 words - 4 pages Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in both the developed and developing world (Sen). In Australia, it affects one in six people (3.7million) and killing one Australian every 12 minutes (National Heart Foundation of Australia). Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have recently been demonstrated to have increasing therapeutic potential in cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia and coronary artery disease (Werling, Thorpe

Early Diabetes Impairs Bone Marrow Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function Which Not Related To Oxidative Stress Mediated Mechanism

1525 words - 7 pages 3.1.1. Diabetic mice display lower BM-KSL Cells Diabetic mice were used after as early of 4 weeks induction, which determined by constant hyperglycemia (>300 mg/dL or higher). We started our study by confirming the effect of diabetes model on functional bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPC). Sufficient studies have demonstrated that diabetes caused decrease in number of endothelial progenitor cells [4,6,42,43]. Our findings

Early Diabetes Impairs Bone Marrow Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells Function Which Not Related To Oxidative Stress Mediated Mechanism

1019 words - 5 pages previously described [41]. Seven days after the initial injection, mice with blood glucose level equal or higher than 300mg/dL were decided as diabetic mice (DM), while those whose blood glucose level < 300 mg/dL will receive additional STZ injection (50mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Diabetic mice were considered if their blood glucose levels were 300 mg/dL or higher which maintained at least 4 weeks. 2.2. Bone marrow (BM)-derived KSL cells