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Enhancing Employee Performance Through Effective Human Resource Management.

1900 words - 8 pages

External factors are characterized in two groups. The first being one's culture, family, or reference group, and the second being environmental and situational factors. These external factors although seemingly adventitious by title have great influence on the behaviour of consumers. Their effect is the "total environment" that Holloway refers to in which consumer behaviour theories exist (155). Like all sciences, consumer behaviour theories are constantly tested and adapted in a dynamic equilibrium. It is important to understand and observe this environment in order to better understand the affect it has on the final outcome of consumer behavior. In addition, other intrinsic variables such as attitudes, personalities, and learning are all influenced by such external factors as culture and family (Engel et al.1968, 85). Extrinsic factors therefore have much further reach than simply their own matrixes, but in the past and at present they have influence over other aspects of consumers. For academics this becomes important because external forces represent observable, researchable entities that perhaps lend a keener insight into the adaptation and application of consumer behaviour theories. For marketing managers a better understanding of the affect of external factors on consumer behaviour theories allows them to better-forecast consumer actions and consumption patterns. Culture and subculture, relatively difficult external factors to capture in statistics or reports are powerful determining factors that must be taken into consideration when managers make decisions about products and consumers. The impact of culture on decision-making managers, and the affect it has on the theories of academics can be clearly seen in multiple situations. Family, one of the most influential reference groups also has a large impact on the consumption behaviour of consumers. Families are both a consumption entity on their own, and they have influence over the consumption behaviour of the members that comprise them. It is also important to understand that common misconceptions and generalizations regarding family can lead to inaccurate forecasts; external factors have the potential to mislead due to generalizations. Finally, social status, reference groups, and peers all influence the products consumers choose, and influence the continuing decision-making processes. Ultimately both academics and marketing managers are concerned with the ways and motivations behind what decisions consumers make and why they make certain decisions. Finally, another crucial point that observers must remember is that these external factors do not exist independently of each other. They interact and exert influence over each other. This ultimately leads to the total environment in which the consumer exists and it is the goal of the academic and marketing manager to understand this fundamental tenet.Understanding culture is a fundamental factor in understanding consumer demand for a product...

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