B. Literature Review
1. Tourism Discourse
Tourism is a movement which comprises the straight interaction between cultures and all that this conception consist of namely culture and heritage, folklore, customs, gastronomy, dancing, rules, etc. The relationship between language and tourism has been paid attention by some scholars such as MacCannell (1976) and Urry (1990) who argue the tourism development depends on language use and how to construct and define the tourist experience and destination images. As Boyer and Viallon (1994) discovered that it is not so many destinations which is integrally touristic but rather the language use creates them be touristic. This concept was then developed by Graham Dann (1996) who was one of the first scholars conducted a comprehensive sociolinguistic analysis about the use of language in tourist texts and to distinguish the landscapes which portray tourism as a language of social control. Dann further categorizes the role of language used in tourism promotion can contribute to contextualize the tourist’ experience towards the destination. Therefore, as a function of the language of social control, tourism is a part of the discourse.
Indeed, in tourism, many people perceive their annual holidays as an experience which has the romance and exoticism value and self-fulfilling prophecy (Dann, 2012). This desire encourages people to look for romantic and exotic locations in pursuit of an unspoiled, primeval nature. Responding to this demand, the tourism industry stakeholders and practitioners offer a variety of holiday places or destinations in which the images figure out the beautiful scenery with an old culture. Many images in magazines, news, promotional materials and advertisement are not representing the actual places or event and not documenting the witness, but they symbolically represent the marketing concepts and moods such as contentment and freedom (Machin, 2004). However, images bring the high quality colours, attractive models in which the full messages are expressed in (Dann, 1996). Therefore, studies on the construction of destination image by visual works have been conducted in recent years (e.g. Jaworski, 2010; Santosa, Belhassenb, & Caton, 2008; Iwashita, 2006; Kim & Richardson, 2003; Larsen & George, 2006). Tourism promotion describes places or events through different discourses, for example the use of specific language with high level of vocabulary and visual elements or images attractively (Dann, 1996). Hence, the tourism promotion as a discourse has become more important in introducing the destination to the clients.
Several studies have been conducted to explore the significance of tourism discourse, in particular the tourism promotional documents. Small, Harris & Wilson (2008); Samani & Maliki (2010) carried out a content analysis of the offline media. However, few researchers, if any, have conducted an analysis by integrating both language and images of the tourism promotional tools...