The discoveries made in science during the 1500s and 1600s led European thinkers to raise questions about the conditions of human life itself. Many of the thinkers of the European Enlightenment moved away from medieval thinking toward more modern thoughts regarding government and the role of women in society.
Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history, answer the questions that follow each document. Your answers to the questions will help you write the essay in which you will be asked to:
In the areas of modern thought mentioned in the historical context
• How did philosophical thinking change during the Enlightenment and how did these changes reflect the ideals of the scientific revolution?
. . Political power is that power, which every man having in the state of nature, has given up into the hands of the society, and therein to the governors, whom the society hath set over itself, with this express or tacit trust, that it shall be employed for their good and preservation of their property…
. . . So that the end and measure of this power, when in every man's hands in the state of nature . . . it can have no other end or measure, when in the hands of the magistrate, but to preserve the member of that society in their lives, liberties, and possessions; and so cannot be absolute, arbitrary power over their lives and fortunes…
Second Treatise on Government - John Locke
Based on this document, what is the reason for political power? What does Locke say political power cannot be?
Her circle met daily from five o'clock until nine in the evening. There we were sure to find choice men of all orders in the State, the Church, the Court,-military men, foreigners, and the most distinguished men of letters. Every one agrees that though the name of M. d'Alembert may have drawn them thither, it was she alone who kept them there. Devoted wholly to the care of preserving that society, of which she was the soul and the charm, she subordinated to this purpose all her tastes and all her personal intimacies. She seldom went to the theatre or into the country, and when she did make an exception to this rule it was an event of which all Paris was notified in advance.... Politics, religion, philosophy, anecdotes, news, nothing was excluded from the conversation, and, thanks to her care, the most trivial little narrative gained, as naturally as possible, the place and notice it deserved. News of all kinds was gathered there in its first freshness.
"On Julie de Lespinasse" , Memoir of Baron de Grimm
What role did women serve in the advancement of the Enlightenment? How is a traditional role for women? How is it a break from tradition?
In every government there are three sorts of power; the legislative; the executive, in respect to things dependent on the law of nations; and the executive, in regard to things that depend on the civil law.
By virtue of the...