Environmental And Genetic Impact On Fetal Development

710 words - 3 pages

There are many factors that affect development. Some of those are factor, which have a direct bearing on prenatal life, later on manifest postnatal. The human body is a highly organized system with trillion of cells communicating with each other to ensure proper functioning. However those functions, can be enhance or impaired by endogenous or exogenous agent, which act in concert to produce effects during prenatal life. These effects might have consequences on emotional and cognitive development of a child postnatal. Deena Palenchar (2005) stated that there are environmental agents, which can adversely affect the prenatal development. These agents are known as teratogen. When exposed ...view middle of the document...

Additionally Nicotine interferes ability to absorb certain nutrients because of constricted blood vessel. This also restricts the amount of oxygen flow to the fetus, and disrupts sleep pattern and REM sleep (Sleigh, 2005). Researchers have found that REM sleep is vital for the growth of central nervous system (Berk, 2010). However in their studies, the authors of Gene-environment interactions across development argued that genetic studies should not just consider prenatal risk factors of smoking, but also postnatal environmental factors including parenting and postnatal tobacco exposure, which can determine the capacity to regulate cognition and emotion (Wiebe, Espy, Stopp, Respass, Stewart, Jameson & Huggenvik, 2009).

Hormones are regulatory substances produced and distributed through body via circulatory system to stimulate tissues growth from prenatal life through postnatal development. Therefore it is important that their production and transportation are not interrupted of affected because the results might be devastating for the organism. Cortisol is one of the hormones responsible for regulating stress response, and although beneficial in small amount, cortisol can have detrimental effects on fetus when larger amount are introduced to the fetus during prenatal life. Stress is responsible for the production of cortisol. During pregnancy, women experience different level of...

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