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Environmental Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Essay

988 words - 4 pages

1. Introduction
According to the definition of United States Environmental Protection Agency, environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are exogenous chemicals that can interfere with the production, release, metabolism, excretion and interaction of hormone system that can maintain steady state and adjust development process of creatures. EDC contains lots of types, including industrial chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dioxins, bisphenol A (BPA), phthalate esters and agricultural chemicals organochlorine insecticide (such as DDT and its metabolite DDE), medicinal endocrine disruptors, phytoestrogen and fungal estrogen and so on. EDC exists extensively in food, production ...view middle of the document...

PCB can also hinder the binding between thyroid hormone and serum transport protein, thus impeding the thyroid hormone from transporting from the mother to the fetus. Besides, it can regulate activity of deiodinase and reduce the production of outer Tri-iodothyronine (T3). PCB can also act as thyroid hormone receptor antagonist and cause a series of hypothyroidism manifestations. At present, EDC’s effects on the production of thyroid hormone and its interference on thyroid hormone receptor signaling pathways have received much attention. Recently, researchers use FRTL-5 in vitro culture for experiments and find that the production of thyroglobulin (Tg) decreases significantly after it is exposed to methylene diacrylamide and the rough endoplasmic reticulum swells. However, it makes no difference to the expression of thyroid peroxidase. Ethylene thiourea can inhibitFRTL-5 from secreting thyroglobulin yet has little influence on the synthesis of thyroglobulin. Ethylene thiourea can also inhibit genetic transcription of sodium iodide symporter and a high dose of ethylene thiourea can lower iodine uptake capacity of cells remarkably. A low dose of chlorophenasic acid can reduce the expression of thyroid peroxidase mRNA, thyroid transcription factor1 and thyroglobulin of FRTL-5. With the aid of Fluorophotometry, researchers also demonstrate that BPA can combine with thyroid binding globulin. However, its binding force is lower than T3 and thyroxine (T4). This result suggests that normal level of BPA in blood plasma is not enough to affect the transport of T4. However, long-term exposure or a high dose of BPA’s effects on the transport of T4 should not be ignored. Recent studies find that hydroxylated polybrominated diphenvl ethers have a similar structure with thyroid hormones. OH-PBDE molecules can form specific hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction with thyroid hormone receptors, which is an important factor in controlling the activity of thyroid hormones.
3. The negative effect of exposure to EDC on thyroid function
Thyroid hormones not only play an important role in maintaining basic metabolism, digestion and normal function of nervous system for adults but also are essential to promote...

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