Water supply and sanitation
The primary sources of city water supply had been surface waters - the Volkhov River and Fedorovskiy creek, in which water constantly was being polluted during all the city and its upstream. In particular, the high chloride content in river water, besides location salt formations near the city and the presence of the salt ponds, could be due to wastewaters of Staraya Russa salt plant, which flowed into the Volkhov River across the Polist River and Ilmen Lake. In general, it is estimated by MD Kurkutov, in addition to the surface effluents from city territory, a significant contribution to water pollution have made household water, discharges of brewery, laundry, baths and hospitals, as well as barges, boats, fish cages. Fedorovskiy brook so was being clogged household waste water, that in the summer months it was drying out, and degradable waste content into its mainstream were making favorable environment for the development of epidemic diseases (FIG. 4).
Urban water supply was carried out mainly by water carriers. They gained river water, not caring about its quality, with rafts, where people bathed and rinsed clothes, and, for a fee, brought it to residents Novgorod. Fortunatov and Dobradin noted, that oftentimes the water was being taken from such places, in which are upstream the river various impurities flowed from the city, and, being diluted with water, it was being brought back to the citizens . So the water carriers for a long time have practiced water withdrawal from the river Volkhov from ferriages in front of Lerhovskiy boulevard and military hospital, where it was being heavily polluted by fish cages, ships, baths and drainpipe from laundry hospital (FIG. 5).
Due to this circulation sewage, drinking water provided very poor quality, but in most cases it was better than water with the city pump-house. The pump-house provided water to townspeople of Trade side the city and was being built in 320 meters downstream from Fedorov's trading baths. River water flowed into the reservoir of the pump - house from depth 0.7 - 2.1 meters through cast iron pipe from water well, which during the shallow water was visible at a distance of 2.1 - 3.2 meters from the shore. Sanitary doctors argued, that such placement of pump house required careful monitoring for preserving the purity of the coastal territory. But, according to observations by A.M. Fortunatov and P.A. Dobradin, almost 1.28 km, which river flowed through the city to pump-house, it seemed, was being made every effort to maximize contaminating of drinking water, and ultimately, that sunken dirt, somehow has not passed by the stomachs of consumers, almost near with water intake was bathed horses.
It should be noted that some areas of the city lacked water with this method of water supply. So, some of the homeowners on Sofia side were complaining to the governor on water scarcity, caused by excessive pollution of the creek, which functioned as the sole...