The Australian government and some agencies develop and outline infrastructure plans for a medium term period. The infrastructure plans may include both approved projects and potential projects which can be executed by public or private organizations and partnerships. The Australian government is however not committed to projects and expenditure for the infrastructure plans. Infrastructure is part of National Projects which have their main objective of creating a national network that will bring about many benefits to Australia. These national projects will as a result enhance efficiency and security of the entire national network in Australia and other nations.
Urban planning also referred to as Town Planning is very important because it helps in shaping towns and cities through organizing and controlling development of infrastructure. Binnod et al (2010) states that infrastructure planning should be left on the hands of planners who are professionals in strategizing and designing the places people live in. The planners are able to offer a balance amongst geographical features, community need’s, cultural influences and economical activity of that town. Due to the many changes occurring in the world there is overwhelming demand for quality infrastructure and therefore planners should as well come up with ideas on how to better manage these dynamic changes.
According to Lang (1990) the main objective on improving the social and physical infrastructure in urban areas is to improve systems in metropolitan areas and other programs aimed at developing urban areas. These systems define the role of government and financial requirements for the same. Social and physical infrastructure planning helps in identifying issues related to the future such as funding and cots of human services. Physical infrastructure includes roads, railways, bridges, seaports and airports among others. Social infrastructure includes health care, such as the hospital, health insurance, schools and recreation centers among others.
The social and physical infrastructure may be owned, managed and financed by either the government or private institutions. However, a wide range of the infrastructure is developed for the welfare of the members of public, and therefore in many cases financing for such infrastructure is largely left to the government. In addition, there are no charges for any kind of infrastructure developed by the government for its citizens. All the same, members of public pay for such infrastructure indirectly through taxes and other government fees.
On the other hand, private developers may charge a fee for the use of the social or physical infrastructure. The government has various options available to finance both physical and social infrastructure. Koons (20110 adds that, the major source of government finance or revenue is through taxation made by individuals and corporation. Every income earned by members of public is taxable unless otherwise provided by...