Enzymes Essay

1597 words - 6 pages


Enzymes are biological catalysts that carry out thousands of chemical
reactions that occur in living cells. They are a class of proteins
that have a unique three dimensional structure that allows it to bind
with a specific substrate to facilitate a

reaction. Many biological reactions will not occur spontaneously in
the cell; there is simply not enough energy for the reaction to take
place. Enzymes make these

reactions possible by lowering the reactionÂ’s activation energy. Each
cell has tens of thousands of different enzymes that collectively
allow both the break down and synthesis of molecules to drive all
cellular processes.

This investigation will explore the effect of pH on the
three-dimensional structure of a protein. Much of the
three-dimensional structure of an enzyme is held together by

weak interactions including H-bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic

These interactions can be easily disrupted by changes in temperature,

concentration, and pH. pH levels out of the normal intracellular range

denature enzymes, slowing the enzymeÂ’s reaction rates.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a toxic chemical that is continually being
formed as

By product of reactions in peroxisomes of living cells. Since it is
poisonous, the cells

must either get rid of it or change it to something nonpoisonous. If
they cannot do

this, the cell may die; catalase solves this problem. The enzyme
catalase is found in animal and plant tissues, and is especially
abundant in plant storage organs such as potato tubers, corns, and
fleshy part of fruits. Catalase reacts with the H2O2 to form water and

2H2O2 + Catalase → 2H2O + O2 + Catalase

What is Catalase?

Enzymes are very large and complex organic molecules that are
synthesized by the cell to perform very specific functions. These
biological catalysts are important because they speed up the rate of
the reaction they catalyze that would otherwise be too slow to support
life. Catalase is an enzyme present in the cells of plants, animals
and aerobic (oxygen requiring) bacteria. It promotes the conversion of
hydrogen peroxide, a powerful and potentially harmful oxidizing agent,
to water and molecular oxygen.

2H2O2 to 2H2O + O2

Catalase also uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize toxins including
phenols, formic acid, formaldehyde and alcohols.

H2O2 + RH2 to 2H2O + R

Where is it found and what does it do?

Catalase is located in a cell organelle called the peroxisome.
Peroxisomes in animal cells are involved in the oxidation of fatty
acids, and the synthesis of cholesterol and bile acids. Hydrogen
peroxide is a byproduct of fatty acid oxidation. White blood cells
produce hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria. In both cases catalase
prevents the hydrogen...

Find Another Essay On Enzymes

Enzymes Essay

5925 words - 24 pages Enzymes Enzymes are catalysts. Most are proteins. (A few ribonucleoprotein enzymes have been discovered and, for some of these, the catalytic activity is in the RNA part rather than the protein part. Link to discussion of these ribozymes.) Enzymes bind temporarily to one or more of the reactants of the reaction they...

Enzymes Essay

1005 words - 4 pages Enzymes Enzymes are complex proteins that carry out essentially every chemical reaction in the human body. Enzymes function as biological catalyst, regulating the rate at which chemical reactions proceed without themselves being altered in the process. In this particular experiment we recognized benzoquinone and examined two numbers of factors to determine their effects...

Enzymes in Industry

2395 words - 10 pages Enzymes in Industry Enzymes are described as chemical a catalyst that is they speed up the rate of reaction. Enzymes have enormous potential in the commercial world. They are cheap to use in industry and they do not need high temperatures to work. They work at neutral PH and normal atmospheric pressure. This reduces the costs of fuel in industry and are energy saving. Also, enzymes can be reused. This means that...

Application of Enzymes

1405 words - 6 pages Assignment 1Submitted by: Raunak Shrestha (BT-30)Submitted to: Dr. Jyoti MaharjanBIOT 203 (Biochemistry)10th November 2006Application of EnzymesLiving cells and tissues require basic nutrients and essential substances to divide, grow and perform their normal activities. Most of these substances are synthesized from food, water and other nutritional supplements. The step-by-step biochemical reaction involved in producing these components requires...

Introduction to Enzymes

551 words - 2 pages Leonardo MitchellBiologyEnzymesEnzymes are proteins made up of amino acids, which act as biological catalysts. This means they speed up chemical reactions that take place in all cells. They are the ones which determine whether a substance is broken down or built up. In reactions that include enzymes, the molecules, which react, are called substrates, which have a complementary relation with the active site, and the produced molecules are called...

Lab: Enzymes – Protein Catalysts

922 words - 4 pages Lab: Enzymes – Protein Catalysts Abstract: Enzymes are catalysts therefore we can state that they work to start a reaction or speed it up. The chemical transformed due to the enzyme (catalase) is known as the substrate. In this lab the chemical used was hydrogen peroxide because it can be broken down by catalase. The substrate in this lab would be hydrogen peroxide and the enzymes used will be catalase which is found in both potatoes and...

Investigation of Enzymes

1279 words - 5 pages Investigation of Enzymes The majority of the reactions that occur in living organisms are enzyme-controlled. Without them, the rate of the reactions would be so slow as to cause serious, if not fatal, damage. Without enzymes toxins would soon build up and the supply of respiratory substrate would decrease. Enzymes are proteins and thus have a specific shape. They are therefore specific in the reactions that they...

Enzymes - Lactose-Free milk

6513 words - 26 pages PlanAim: The purpose of this experiment is to investigate what size of bead would produce a higher concentration of glucose, after the milk has been poured into the column containing the immobilised lactase enzymes. The experiment would also be done using two different types of milk (Semi-skimmed and Whole milk) in order to see the difference in the amount of lactose present in each.HypothesisThe smaller the size of the beads in the column, the...

Enzymes (An Experiment)

1152 words - 5 pages Problem The phenomenon that we were looking at was how enzymes in potatoes react with substrate. The enzyme will react with the substrate and use the substrate up but the enzyme will regenerate until the substrate is used up. The reaction for this can be written as: E+S ES E+P Where E is the enzyme, S is the substrate, ES is a stage called enzyme-substrate, and P is the product. This reaction in the body is continuous and always equal. ...

The Industrial Application of Enzymes

1995 words - 8 pages The Industrial Application of Enzymes Enzymes are naturally occurring biological molecules found in all living organisms, plant, animal and microorganisms such as bacteria. All enzymes are proteins and, as with all proteins, are made up of a chain or polymer of amino acids held together by peptide bonds. This chain coils to form a specific three-dimensional globular shape, which, typically, means an enzyme will only...

Can life exist without enzymes?

1915 words - 8 pages The term 'life', is in itself, a vague entity. Different people have different perceptions of what 'life' is. To some, life is the quality of living; to others, it is their very existence itself. In biological terms, I have defined 'life' to be the ability to function, be it as a complex multicellular organism, or a single-celled protozoan. This is brought about by vital processes such as regulation and control, respiration, defence and...

Similar Essays

Enzymes Essay

1472 words - 6 pages Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts. A catalyst is defined as a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanentchange. Enzymes do precisely this in living things. Without them, the rate of the reactions would be so slow as to cause serious, if not fatal, damage. Enzymes have two main functions: To act as highly specific catalysts, and also to provide a way of ...

Enzymes Essay 1235 Words

1235 words - 5 pages Enzymes'Enzymes are biological catalysts. A catalyst is defined as a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanentchange. Enzymes do precisely this in living things. Without them, the rate of the reactions would be so slow as to cause serious, if not fatal, damage. Enzymes have two main functions: To act as highly specific catalysts, and also to provide a way of controlling reactions, the amount...

Enzymes Essay 1407 Words

1407 words - 6 pages Enzymes are presented in many different shapes and sizes because form fits function. Enzymes play an active role in everyday life, in every living organism. What all enzymes have in common is that they are proteins meant to speed up chemical reactions because without them reactions would occur at an extremely slow rate. This would be a conflict for every living thing which is why enzymes are so important. Enzymes are defined as “a protein formed...

Enzymes Essay 1194 Words

1194 words - 5 pages EnzymesExperiment #1- Effect of concentration of enzyme on rate of reaction.Variables- Concentration.Purpose- To find the amount of gas produced by different concentration of peroxidesdecomposing.Hypothesis- The higher the concentration of the peroxidase the more gas will be produced.Experiment #2- Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction.Variables- Temperature.Purpose- To determine if the peroxidase will be effected by...