This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Epidemiology In The Book Public Health Medicine For The Tropics By Lucas And Gilles

3497 words - 14 pages


In the book Public Health Medicine for the Tropics, Lucas and Gilles (2003) states that the term ‘epidemiology’ which originally meant ‘the study of epidemics’ employed techniques that were used in the study and control of epidemics but have now been usefully employed to include ‘study of non-communicable diseases and accidents’, ‘study of distribution of disease in human population’, ‘study of patterns of disease’ as well as ‘search for determinants of disease’. Furthermore, they stated that epidemiology ‘exploits the technologies from other disciplines – microbiology, parasitology, social sciences and new ...view middle of the document...

According to the WHO Treatment guideline on the treatment of TB, the following are the standard definition of a TB case (WHO, 2010).
Tuberculosis Suspect: Any person who presents with symptoms or signs sugges¬tive of TB. The most common symptom of pulmonary TB is a productive cough for more than 2 weeks, which may be accompanied by other respiratory symptoms (shortness of breath, chest pains, haemoptysis) and/or constitutional symptoms (loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, night sweats, and fatigue) (WHO, 2010).
Case of tuberculosis: A definite case of TB (defined below) or one in which a health worker (clinician or other medical practitioner) has diagnosed TB and has decided to treat the patient with a full course of TB treatment (WHO, 2010)..
Definite case of tuberculosis: A patient with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex identified from a clinical specimen, either by culture or by a newer method such as molecular line probe assay. In countries that lack the laboratory capacity to routinely identify M. tuberculosis,some resource-limited settings, a pulmonary case with one or more initial spu¬tum smear examinations positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is also considered to be a “definite” case, provided that there is a functional external quality assurance (EQA) system with blind rechecking (WHO, 2010)..

The Agent
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis – a bacterium mostly found humans (Webber, 2012). The infection is also found in cattle as Mycobacterium bovis and naturally occurs in the environment and capable of infecting humans (WHO, 2013).
The Host
TB occurs in humans as Mycobacterium tuberculosis mostly affects the – a bacterium that mostly affects the lungs of humans (Webber, 2102) as is referred to as pulmonary TB. When found outside human lungs, it is referred to as extra-pulmonary TB and can occur as follows: skeletal tuberculosis, genital tract tuberculosis, urinary tract tuberculosis, CNS tuberculosis, gastrointestinal tuberculosis, adrenal tuberculosis, scrofula and cardiac tuberculosis (Web Path, 2014). TB occurs in cattle in the form of Mycobacterium bovis and natarally occurs in the environment (WHO, 2013).

TB is spread from person to person through the air. When people with lung or pulmonary TB cough, sneeze or spit releasing TB germ into the air, other people may become infected if and when they inhale these germs. About a third of the world's population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with TB disease and cannot transmit the disease. It is pertinent to note that 10% of the people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis have a lifetime risk of falling ill. There is a higher risk and/or disease progression is faster among people living with HIV, diabetics, tobacco smokers, who have their immune system compromised as a result of their illness or habit (WHO, 2013).
The symptoms of active TB is usually mild for many months in persons that...

Find Another Essay On Epidemiology in The Book Public Health Medicine for the Tropics by Lucas and Gilles

Medicine and General Health in the Nineteenth Century

2111 words - 8 pages believed that the harsh judgement of God because of man’s sins resulted in punishment such as the bubonic plague. “For the first time, religion started to lose its grip on broad groups of people” (Ice “Medicine in the Victorian Era”). As one studies the nineteenth century, one notices that religion no longer controlled the opinions and medical views of the people. Although religion formerly tainted their outlook on medicine and health, scientific

Return of the Jedi by George Lucas

613 words - 2 pages considered the paradise described in Revelations after all the chaos. While there are many more themes of apocalyptic literature, these three are the strongest sources. As stated previously, there is a connection between Star Wars and apocalyptic literature; even if George Lucas was not intending for it to be considered this way, it still can be considered this way. But, even if people are not watching this as a metaphor for apocalyptic literature, it

The Imperative of Health, Public Health and the Regulated Body by Deborah Lupton

1822 words - 8 pages AR&V Part 2 Book review Ymke van Buuren I6047936 Book review is 1633 words Introduction This book review is meant for academics or students who are interested in the history of public health, the risks in public health, the use of mass media in public health and the responses of individuals about public health. The academics and students who want to think critically about these components of public health, should read this review to check

Health Risks Determined by Epidemiology

1473 words - 6 pages Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in well-defined populations. The goal of epidemiology is to understand the causes of disease variation and limit disease, injury and death in a community by intervening to prevent or limit outbreaks or epidemics of disease and injury. Epidemiology provides the most compelling evidence for measuring environmental risk to humans. Epidemiologists are

How did the Composers communicate their ideas on Changing Self in film 'Secrets and Lies' directed by Mike Leigh, the novel 'Return of the Jedi' by George Lucas

2028 words - 8 pages themselves to change, which will always be for the better.A person who might or might not be aware of the need to change will nevertheless have to make a decision to change. Regardless of the fact of whether or not an individual actually feel like they require the change, change is inevitable. It is the nature of life.The same idea of change resonates in many texts including the film 'Secrets and Lies' directed by Mike Leigh, the novel 'Return of

Is vaccinating the public for diseases (such as influenza (in adults) and measles (in children)) harmful to their health?

997 words - 4 pages and has helped save a lot of lives over the last few years. And is a useful public health tool in control of spreading of certain diseases. We have also found that the debate is quite rife but yet the government would not implement such things if they do not have your interest at heart and scientists have spent years researching and finding a safe vaccine and safe way to administer it. So is vaccinating the public for diseases harmful to their

The Relationship Between Nursing and Public Health

1891 words - 8 pages the years from a nurse being a mother or a woman to the nurse with duties integrating the growing and challenging to people in need of health care. Nursing was initially limited to hospitals; however, there is an increasing requirement for nursing and medical services to be taken to the community. This is where public health and nursing comes into play. To understand public health, there is a need to give insight into what it entails. The focus

Public Health Laws and Regulations For Organized Camps in California

1785 words - 7 pages In the State of California, Department of Public Health Laws and Regulations Relating to Organized Camps, the following reference is made: “An accepted reference for these operating procedures are the following chapters of the Accreditation Standards for Camp Programs and Services,” (CA, 2008. p.8). The ACA's influence is so renown that the State of California has adopted many of their standards into laws. With regard to basic personnel

Holden's Character Analysis and reasons for his emotional breakdown in the book,"Catcher in the rye" by J.D. Salinger

1385 words - 6 pages , Holden's criticism for adults causes him to think that he is excluded from and victimized by the world around him. As he says to Mr. Spencer, he feels trapped on "the other side" (Salinger 8) of life, and he continually attempts to find his way in a world in which he feels he doesn't belong.In several parts of novel, Holden projects his own idealizations of children because of their innocence, curiosity, and honesty. This is evident when Holden decides

Women and Medicine In the War

2114 words - 9 pages : Frontline U.S. Army Nurses in World War II, (Random House LLC, December 18, 2007), 6 I found this book the most useful because it had lots of detailed information about the role of women during the war. It also provided lots of information about women working on the frontlines of the battlefield by mentioning the working conditions, uniforms, and environmental problems women faced. Rostker Bernard, Providing for the Casualties of War

Augmented Reality in Exhibition and Entertainment for the Public

703 words - 3 pages exhibitions have been increasing and are more widely accessible by the public. The purpose of exhibitions is to present objects to the public, showcasing as much information of the objects as possible. For exhibitions to gain more public appeal, classical presentations such as signboards and static graphics have been surpassed. Instead, new technologies like AR and human-computer interaction are employed to inspire new forms of exhibitions to satisfy the

Similar Essays

Romance In The Tropics Essay

692 words - 3 pages wander back to the days of special times. After fifteen years of marriage, my husband and I decided to create our own special memories by taking a third honeymoon. We wanted to get far away from home and the everyday stresses of life.We called our travel agent and asked her to book an exotic trip for us as soon as possible. We expressed how we often dreamt of experiencing a romantic adventure in the tropics. She gave us several appealing choices. We

Theme Analysis Of Anna In The Tropics By Nilo Cruz

1142 words - 5 pages becomes involved in an adulterous affair with Conchita even though he knows that Palomo is aware of his wife’s cheating, showing defect of rationalization. Conchita “That i’m just a cigar roller in a factory…I barely get by in life… but with this book i’m seeing everything through new eyes”. The turn points major conflict is when Conchita ask Palomo questions about his lover and he will not answer her, she tells him that she wants a makeover and

Lateritic Soils In The Tropics: The Problems And Management Possibilities

1810 words - 7 pages weathering, the minerals and the oxides in the soil solution have a relatively low charge and the cation exchange capacity is very low. For example, Oxisols and other soils of the tropics dominated by kaolinite have a CEC which is one third to one sixth that of other 2:1 clay dominated soils (15-30 cmolc kg-1 versus <5cmolc kg-1). Therefore, soil organic matter is important in these soils because they add CEC and maintain the nutrients

Virgin And Child By Lucas Cranach The Elder

1727 words - 7 pages The elaborate artwork by Lucas Cranach the Elder titled: Virgin and Child, 1513-1514, depicts the Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus sitting on what appears to be a bench under a tree. In the background and to the left of The Virgin Mary is a castle, or what could be considered as a mansion of some sort. Closer to the Virgin Mary and Baby Jesus, but still behind them, is a path that is surrounded by grass. This path could signify that they