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Epidemiology Of Avian Influenza H5 N1 Virus

1676 words - 7 pages

Bird flu (H5N1) which is also known as Avian Influenza H5N1 is a highly pathogenic flu that has infected many poultries and humans in the world, mostly in Asian countries. The global spread of the H5N1 outbreak itself occurs because of the undetected H5N1-infected migratory waterfowl which moves seasonally, large quantity of poultry and illegal trading in developing countries such as in Southeast Asia which is hard to control and eradicate causing the intercontinental out spread. The first outbreak was in Guangdong Province, China in a farmed goose, and human infections were first reported in the following year, 1997, in Hong Kong with 6 deaths of 18 cases. Avian influenza viruses (H5N1) belong to Orthomyxoviruses family type A and are characterized by its glycoproteins which are haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Migratory waterfowl, especially domestic ducks, are expected as natural reservoirs of H5N1 influenza A virus because all 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes of influenza A virus are isolated from these hosts, and domestic ducks can also be silent host which show only few signs of illness. Influenza A viruses can be transmitted from the natural host into many species such as pigs, tigers, leopards, cats, eagles, and humans. The modes of H5N1 wide transmissions are expected to be Live Bird Market (LBM), illegal trade, and transport of illegal poultry or exotic birds. Based on WHO cumulative number of human cases, there are 565 cases including 331 deaths in 15 countries since the first wave of H5N1 in 2003 until 2011 with Indonesia as the highest incidence of H5N1 human cases among H5N1-infected countries. There have been some control measures applied to eradicate H5N1 such as burial, composting contaminated carcasses on-site, and disposal of dead birds off-site. Vaccinations of poultry, oseltamivir, zanamivir, and neuraminidase inhibitor usage for humans are given as control measures to treat patients with H5N1, while no vaccination for human is available as an antibody against H5N1. In this essay, there are several discussions regarding the epidemiology of H5N1 such as the incidence of H5N1 in the world, the natural hosts, and modes of transmission, control measures, and prevention procedures.
First wave of H5N1 avian influenza was started from the mid of 2003 to mid of March 2004. Infected countries were mostly in Southeast Asia, such as Republic of Korea, Viet Nam, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao LDR, Indonesia, and China. The infection of H5N1 occurred in human and mostly animals. The host targets were not only birds, but also tigers and leopards which died after fed on fresh chicken carcasses in Thailand in December 2003. At the same month, Korea also reported poultry deaths at three farms caused by H5N1. At the beginning of 2004, Vietnam, Japan, Thailand Cambodia, and Lao reported H5N1 in poultries. At the following month February 2004, Indonesia and China also reported H5N1 in poultries. Human...

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