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Equality In College Enrollment Essay

1193 words - 5 pages

The United States has always dealt with problems concerning equality and equal chances for all. One of the solutions to this problem is known as affirmative action, or preferential selection used to include groups into areas where they have historically been excluded from. It takes factors such as race, gender, and ethnicity into account to increase minority representations. Its origin can be traced back to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prevented employers from hiring or firing individuals based on certain qualities. It was intended as a punishment for those who disobeyed this law. Later, President Lyndon Johnson’s Executive Order 11246 forced federal contractors to employ “affirmative action” as to not discriminate when hiring. It took the national stage in the autumn of 1972, when the Secretary of Labor’s Revised Order No. 4 fully implemented the executive order and applied it nation-wide.
In 2006, 58% of Michigan voters approved Proposal 2, prohibiting preference and discrimination based on race, sex, ethnicity, or national origin in employment and public education. (Bonsur and Brokamp, law.cornell.edu). It clashed with the Supreme Court’s ruling of Grutter v. Bollinger, which decided that certain types of affirmative action were necessary for the country’s future. The NAACP’s legal defense force and a coalition of civil rights groups sued, saying it violated the 14th amendment. The U.S. District Court for the District of Eastern Michigan said that Proposal 2 did not violate the 14th amendment. The decision was appealed and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit initially decided that it was unconstitutional, eventually being agreed upon by the full Sixth Court. Michigan’s Attorney General, Bill Schuette, requested for the Supreme Court to hear the case. Despite briefs filed by civil rights groups to dismiss Schuette’s request, in March 2013, the court decided it would hear the case. The cases Schuette v. Cantrell (a male minority that civil rights groups filed the case on the behalf of), Cantrell v. Granholm (now the former governor of Michigan), and Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action v. Granholm were all merged into the current case, Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action. Advocates of Proposal 2 argue that minorities do not need racial preferences to succeed, while supporters of affirmative action say that it is necessary for diversity and to help minorities perform well. However, the Supreme Court should extend their ruling from Grutter v. Bollinger and allow for a refined version of affirmative action that would still give deserving minorities a chance to better their lives, as removing affirmative action would be detrimental to the nation while keeping it in its current form would also allow for many injustices to occur.
Schuette and his supporters first referenced the Equal Protection Clause, which says that no state can deny a person equal treatment under the law. They argued that since Proposal 2...

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