Erik Erikson is an ego psychologist. According to Erikson, a child growing environment is very important and as it provides growth environment, adjustment, source of awareness, and identity to a child. If the environment was rich in what had been mentioned above, a child would grow healthily or vice versa, he or she will have an unhealthy development.
Ego of a person develops when one successfully solves the crisis at each stage of development and when this phenomenon occurs, it results in healthy personality. For an instance, a sense of trust in others, sense of identity in society, and preparation of next generation for the future. Not to forget that basic virtues, the ability which ego can use to solve subsequent crisis also would exist in one self. While on the other hand, when one failed to resolve the crisis, it results reduced ability to complete further stages, thus unhealthy personality and sense of self would occur in one self. However these stages can be resolved successfully later in the future.
Erikson has developed a theory of development and ego, which are the stages of psychosocial development. This theory describes the lifespan development of an individual. Through this theory, we can have a better understanding on what Erikson meant about the ego and identity of one self. He assumes that crises happened in every stages of development, and how one react to the crisis determines the growth of the individual.
There are eight stages of psychosocial development. The first stage of development happens during the first year of life which is from 0 years old to 1 and the half years old. During this stage, infant is uncertain about the world, and the consistency of care from parents will influence the growth of the infant. The crisis in this stage is trust vs. mistrust. If the infant receives a consistent care and love from the parents, then sense of trust will be developed and the infant will be able to feel secure and love. Virtue of hope is then being developed in the infant. On the other hand, if the infant failed to sense the love and care from the parents, they would feel insecure and sense of mistrust would develop in the infant. They will lose hope, and feel insecure in their world, thus, anxiety occurs in one self.
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt is the second stage of the development, it happens between 1 and the half years old to 3 years old. During this period, Erikson stated that it is important for parents to encourage their children on what they have done and give them the opportunity to discover the limits of their abilities. The encouragement of the parents will lead their child to be more independence. Also, children should be educated to complete particular task by themselves. If they could do so, they would become more confident and have the ability to survive in the world. Vice versa, they will be lack of self-esteem and have a sense of shame on their own abilities.
From age three to age five, the...