Erik Erikson's Stages Of Development Essay

3331 words - 13 pages

Eric Erikson was one of the most famous theorists of the twentieth century; he created many theories. One of the most talked about theories is his theory of psychosocial development. This is a theory that describes stages in which an individual should pass as they are going through life. His theory includes nine stages all together. The original theory only included eight stages but Erikson‘s wife found a ninth stage and published it after his death. The nine stages include: trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. identity confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, integrity vs. despair, and hope and faith vs. despair (Crandell and Crandell, p.35-36)).

The First stage in Erickson’s theory is trust vs. mistrust, this stage occurs during infancy, from birth to one years old. This stage is all about trust, it is the stage where you hopefully begin to trust not only yourself but others as well (Crandell and Crandell p. 36). An infant gains trust in infancy because they can not do anything for themselves, they depend on others to do everything for them therefore in this stage they develop trust in others, their caregivers, that they will do all that they can to take care of their well-being. Developing trust in infancy is crucial because this makes the individual grow up feeling safe and secure in the world. A positive outcome of an infant developing trust is that they grow up feeling safe in the world, a negative outcome would be that the individual grows up in fear of the world. There is no way to develop one hundred percent trust or one hundred percent doubt, Erikson believed that the best way to come out of this stage is with a balance of the two (Erikson’s Theory, p.1). This is a stage that people can not really remember going through, this is a stage where you kind of just have to realize the outcome later on in life. I would say that I came out of this stage successfully because I am not in fear of the world. My parents took care of all of my needs as I was a baby, they made sure I had food, clothes, love and everything that a baby needs, so now I feel that I can trust people, and that there is no need for me to fear the world or the people around me.

The second stage in Erickson’s theory is the stage of autonomy vs. shame and doubt, this stage occurs between the ages of two and three. This is the stage where individuals are supposed to learn personal control (Crandell and Crandell p.36). This is stage where you basically gain control over everything. Erikson believed that an important aspect of this stage is toilet training the child, he believed that proper toilet training and learning how to control body functions, provides for a feeling of control and sense of independence. Other ideas of this stage is that the child learns to make their own food and clothing preferences and their favorite toys. Successful outcomes of this stage are the...

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