At the age of 6 years old, a child would most likely experienced the school system which would include pre-school and kindergarten. There are many physical, cognitive and social changes that are happening in middle childhood development. This paper will examine what these changes affect the child’s ability to function in society. This analysis will focus on the normal course of development in middle childhood as it applies to the theorist Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages and then give examples of what may happen if the developments are not carried out.
In middle childhood (aged 6-12), the child will experience the Industry vs. Inferiority stage. This is the fourth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial stage. With the previous three stages, the child has already learned to decide what is right and wrong, deciding when to say no, and has learn to trust others through attachment (Boyd, Johnson, & Bee, 2009). The child will for the first time be sent to school to kindergarten; where they will learn to interact with new children of their age.
Physical Changes and Development
Boyd, Johnson, & Bee (2009) say that, “between the ages 6 and 12, children grow 5 to 8 centimeters and add about 2.75 kilograms each year.” The child will be able learn how to use their large muscles to learn new skills such as running long distances in track and field and riding their bike without the use of training wheels (Boyd, Johnson, & Bee, 2009). There is an improvement in their hand eye coordination which enables the child to catch or kick a ball in field sports (Boyd, Johnson, & Bee, 2009).
At this age, children are prone to injuries that involve falling. Ginsburg (1992) says, “the child begins to take an interest in the “utensils, tools and the weapons used by big people” (p.97). This leads to the child in harming themselves unintentionally due to carelessness or being uncoordinated. Studies show that childhood injuries and deaths occur right in their home (Morrongiello, Corbett, McCourt, & Johnston, 2006). In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 4 children will experience an injury that will need medical attention (Morrongiello, Corbett, McCourt, & Johnston, 2006). Erikson’s psychosocial theory is an excellent way to better understand why a child will get injured by providing a different perspective (Ginsburg, 1992). This will lead to more extensive research on childhood injuries (Ginsburg, 1992).
If the child is unable to play with others, participate in school activities and demonstrate proper social behavior. The parents or the teacher should intervene to ask the child why they are not participating. Failure to participate in these developmental activities could be a sign of low self esteem, depression, abuse and being bullied by others.
The child develops a sense of pride and competence in new skills they learn (Huffman, Younger, & Vanston, 2010). For example, this accomplished by being confident that they score a...