Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Many psychologists and psychoanalysts have impacted the way human growth and development is viewed today. These psychologists and psychoanalysts developed theories that are being used every day in the health care profession. The view healthcare professionals have of growth and development greatly affects the outcome of the patient. Understanding the theories of Freud, Kohlberg, Piaget, and Erikson is tremendously important for nurses. Erik Erikson developed one of the theories that nurses readily use today.
Erik Erickson was born in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany in 1902. He moved to the United States in 1927. In 1936 Erickson joined the Institute of Human Relationships, which is part of Yale University. ("Erikson Institute," 2014) Erikson was an ego psychologist. (McLeod, 2008) Erikson’s theory involves an individual establishing sense of trust and identity within his or her society and helping to mold future generations. He believed that the role of society and culture help to shape personality. Erikson alleged that there is plenty of room for growth and development throughout one’s lifetime. (McLeod, 2008)
Erikson developed the theory of psychosocial development. Erik Erikson did use Freud’s order of life span development. The predetermined order of life stages is called the epigenic principle. (McLeod, 2008) Erikson’s theory is in eight stages. (Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2012-2014) Erikson believed that individuals need to complete and master a task in one stage before they can move on into another stage. (Potter, Perry, Stockert, & Hall, 2012-2014) Mastering tasks in stages are significant because there will be future times when mastered tasks are put to test and challenged.
The fourth stage in Erik Erikson’s theory is the industry versus inferiority stage. An individual goes through this stage between six to eleven years of age. At this age children are eager to go to school. (Sharkey, 1997) The teacher becomes an imperative part in a child’s life during this stage because of the specific things he/she teaches the child. (McLeod, 2008) Being around peers of the same age is essential because a major source of the child’s self-esteem.
Accomplishing tasks is a significant thing to a child in industry versus inferiority stage. Erikson believed that child needed to have an actual achievement experience to develop the sense of competency. Also, the child starts to seek approval of things from society during this stage. (Sharkey, 1997) Encouragement and reinforcement helps the child to have a...