Textbook Essay 1
In the 16th century, the most extreme Protestants within the Church of England was given the name Puritans. They wanted to purify their church and rid the church of any Catholic influence. The elements of the Puritan's religion included simple worshipping services, personal and direct religious experiences with God by reading the Holy Bible, and moral conduct. They believed in salvation which was predetermined by God from the moment of birth and only God could grant salvation. Their beliefs were filled with paradoxes such as man would live in hope for eternal salvation, yet he may not have been predetermined by God for salvation. They opposed illicit activities such as adultery and fornication.
Their key elements are:
Convenant of Grace -God's promise to send his spirit to earth for those destined for salvation so they may believe in Him or his holy son Jesus Christ.
Glorification- the elect will form a community of saints after death in which their souls would unite with God.
Justification- conversion in which depravity may be rehabilitated but they may relapse into the same behavior.
Natural depravity- each human by nature, are corrupt and depraved, stemming from Adam and Eve's fall from grace.
Sanctification is leading the life of a saint for the love of God.
Source: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/novel_18c/defoe/puritanism.html#will. Puritanism. Feb 3,2013.
The Common Wealth period of England was from 1649 onwards where England was ruled as a republic by the powerhouses of Parliament and Council of State. During the first few years, there were risks of invasion with Scotland and Ireland, dissension within the Rump Parliament factions with one side wanting a republic and the other wanting to keep with a monarchy, episcopacy was suppressed, and many restricive laws were passes such as closing down the theater, banning gambling, and regulating people's moral behaviors. As a Puritan, Oliver Cromwell abolished theaters because it was against his religious beliefs. He considered the theater the “Devil's workshop” and as a military leader believed it was a meeting place for rebellion, radicalism, and propaganda.
source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_England, Commonwealth of England. January 2014.
The Restoration Comedy of Manners satirizes the behaviors and manners of the upper social classes. The plot incorporates stereotypical characters around a scandalous plot with witty dialogue. These comedies were entertaining to the socially diverse audiences due to it's notorious sexual explicitness and plots, the introduction of professional female actresses, poking fun at acquired mannerisms, and the rise of celebrity actors. The actors had to maintain a mask of social artifice while showing the audience their true intentions and behaviors behind the mask. There was boudoir intrigue, rakish behavior, sexual innuendos, and...