7912 words - 32 pages

LINKÖPINGS UNIVERSITETInstitutionen för datavetenskap729G50 Artificiell intelligensFördjupningsuppgiftEtt program för skapandetav en generell speldatorHT 2001Stefan Ventura800410Fack 2:49AbstractDenna uppsats försöker titta på forskningsfältet artificiell intelligens inom speldomänen ur ett helhetsperspektiv. Medan tidigare forskning till största delen koncentrerats på att skapa system som är så bra som möjligt på att spela ett visst specifikt spel, har man under det senaste decenniet tittat på möjligheterna att skapa system som kan spela flera spel. Nyckeln är att låta programmet själv, utifrån en förklaring av spelets regler, bygga upp den inre representation som krävs för att utföra analysen av spelet, och därefter konstruera en spelstrategi. Uppsatsen utreder hur långt man kommit idag och lägger sedan upp ett program för hur en generell speldator skulle kunna se ut.Innehållsförteckning4InledningSyfte 4Bakgrund 5Kort introduktion till tekniken bakom 5Maskininlärning 6Generella speldatorer 7SAL 8Metagame 8Sammanfattning 9Studie 11Inre representation av reglerna 11Analys av spelet 14Erfarenhet 16Avslutning 18Referenser 19InledningSchackdatorer har redan överträffat människan. Samma sak har hänt inom t.ex. dam och Othello. Forskning inom datorer som kan spela spel har pågått länge. Trots det har man egentligen inte nått särskilt långt sett ur ett teoretiskt perspektiv. Att Deep Blue lyckats besegra Kasparov beror mer på Deep Blues enorma beräkningskapacitet och stora förprogrammerade minne än på förmåga att resonera rent speltekniskt. Detta blir uppenbart även om man gör mycket små förändringar i spelets regler. Dagens datorer är specialprogrammerade att fungera så bra som möjligt i ett visst spel och har ingen generalitet. Världens bästa schackdator skulle inte ha en chans i luffarschack.Det finns också spel som verkar tillbakavisa alla datorer av Deep Blue-typen. Det asiatiska spelet Go spelas på en spelplan om 19*19 rutor. Till skillnad från i schack, där pjäserna endast kan flytta till vissa specifika rutor, är alla rutor spelbara. Det är praktiskt ogenomförbart även för världens största superdatorer att analysera ett sådant spel utifrån enbart rå beräkningskraft. Inför varje drag söker Deep Blue framåt ungefär fjorton drag - sju från varje spelare. I schack blir detta ett sökträd med ungefär 4 * 1021 möjliga drag. Motsvarande siffra för Go är ungefär 2 * 1032, och det totala antalet möjliga drag för hela spelet över 101000. Även för de bästa datorerna skulle...

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