Motivation is defined as the factors that lead to the desire of employees to perform to their fullest of abilities in order to meet the goals set the by the organization as a whole, and also to meet personal aims set by the employees themselves. Motivation requires commitment and effort which can consequently lead to a significant increase in productivity and efficiency. An essential feature of motivation is that it’s an intangible concept, it is invisible and internal (Pinder, 1998). Managers constantly seek new methods to stimulate their employees into putting more effort into their jobs. Although containing contradictory ideologies, different motivation models, such as Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg, 1959) and Taylor’s Scientific Management or Taylorism(Taylor, 1911), have served as a basis to managers on how to increase motivation or keep it at a constant high level throughout. Both these models contradict in the sense that Taylor suggests money is the sole factor that leads to motivation whereas Herzberg concludes that there are other factors that lead to positive stimulation.
Herzberg’s theory includes motivators and hygiene factors (Herzberg, 1959). In basic theory, motivators are factors which lead to an employee’s desire to work harder in order to meet pre-set goals. These include: achievement, recognition for achievement, advancement, responsibility and job challenge. Hygiene factors are those which do not motivate, but in their absence there would be a notable demotivation amongst employees, which include: working conditions, company policy and administration, supervision, salary, job security and relationship with others. On the other hand, Taylor’s scientific management theory (Taylor, 1911) was based upon the term ‘economic man’ where an individual’s sole purpose was to attain the highest salary regardless of other factors. Taylorism was also characterized by supervision to avoid underperformance. Taylor’s model was mainly used with factory workers.
Motivational models implemented by managers have different impacts, at an individual level and an organizational level, and outcomes, on the short-term or immediate and on the long-run.
Managers could set harder jobs with high levels of skill variety to employees (Cummings & Worley, 2008), which, also known as job enrichment, links in to Herzberg’s motivator of job challenge. When a manager sets difficult goals for employees this leads to them feeling challenged and in turn setting higher goals for their own performance to try and successfully accomplish the task and consequently increasing their confidence if they achieve it (Locke & Latham, 2002). Workers will try their best to solve the task effectively as they would want to feel useful and feel part of the company and try to make sure their tasks contribute towards the achieving of aims of the organization; that their work actually makes a difference. Goal achievement would consequently lead to job satisfaction (Locke, 1996)...