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Essay Charles 1st And Charles 2nd

939 words - 4 pages

Orlando EscobarNovember 27th, 2012Mrs. UlloaHistory/10thCharles I and Charles IICharles I was born in Dunfermline, Scotland on November 19th, 1600. He died on January 30th, 1649(aged 49). His father was James VI of Scotland and I of England and his mother was Anne of Denmark. The titles he acquired from his father were the next ones: King of England, King of Ireland, and King of Scotland.On 11 May 1625 Charles married Henrietta Maria in front of the doors of the Notre Dame de Paris, before his first Parliament could meet to forbid the banns. Many members were opposed to the king's marrying a Roman Catholic, fearing that Charles would lift restrictions on Roman Catholics and undermine the official establishment of the reformed Church of England.Distrust of Charles's religious policies increased with his support of a controversial ecclesiastic, Richard Montagu. In his pamphlets A New Gag for an Old Goose, a reply to the Catholic pamphlet A New Gag for the new Gospel, and also his Immediate Addresse unto God alone.The economic problems that Charles I had to deal with were because the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I had generated a large fiscal deficit for the kingdom. Throughout his reign Charles was obliged to rely primarily on volunteer forces and diplomatic efforts to support his sister, Elizabeth, and secure his foreign policy objective for the restoration of the Palatinate. England was still the least taxed country in Europe, with no official excise and no regular direct taxation.Throughout Charles's reign, religious conflicts were seen. The issue of how far the English Reformation should progress was constantly brought to the forefront of political debate.However, when Charles attempted to impose his religious policies in Scotland he faced numerous difficulties. Although born in Scotland, Charles had become estranged from his kingdom; not even paying visit until his Scottish coronation in 1633.In 1637 the king ordered the use of a new Prayer Book to be used within Scotland that was almost identical to the English Book of Common Prayer, without consultation with either the Scottish Parliament or KirkThe Irish Rebellion and England's Civil War made Charles loose everything, even his throne. Various disputes between native and colonizer concerning a transference of land ownership from Catholic to Protestant, particularly in relation to the plantation of Ulster. The English Parliament would sow the seeds of conflagration in Ireland that, despite its initial chaos, provide the catalyst for direct armed combat within England between royalists and parliamentarians.When Parliament refused, it was possibly Henrietta who persuaded Charles to arrest the five members by force, which Charles intended to carry out personally. Parliament quickly seized London, and on 10 January 1642, Charles was forced to leave the capital, where he began travelling north to raise an army against his Parliament.Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and...

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