Part A : Defects in DNA Replication Cause Cancer
As known today, cancer is one of the most lethal diseases in the world. Millions of people died every year caused by various type of cancer, but the concern is that what does really caused the cancer itself? Is it because of the lifestyle people have nowadays? Or because of environment that has changed? Or even sometimes because of the flaw in the replication of DNA? There are lots of probabilities to cause cancer.
In this section, we will discuss about how does DNA replication could end to cause cancer.
II. Replication of DNA
DNA replication is a process to create two identical molecules of DNA by unification of the DNA on the parent DNA (DNA template). New DNA strands produced in the 31 to 51 direction. This process involve 6 major enzymes, it is Helicase, RNA Polimerase, DNA Polimerase III, DNA Polimerase I, DNA Gyrase, and DNA Ligase (Varughese, 2014).
Function of each enzymes explained as written below :
Helicase : Unwind the 2 strand DNA.
RNA Polimerase : Synthesis the short RNA primer strand.
DNA Polimerase III : Extends the RNA primer with short DNA that complete the strands.
DNA Polimerase I : Assimilate the primer RNA and replace it with DNA.
DNA Ligase : Incorporating the neighboring fragments into a new longer stretches.
DNA Gyrase : Release the stretches.
III. Defects in DNA Replication
DNA is the base of human cells, so to prevent blemish to the cells the DNA must be replicated perfectly, but what will happen if the DNA fail to achieve that perfection? Or in other words there’s a flaw on the progress of replication? In this section, we will look closer into it and see what will happened if in some case there’s a faulty of DNA replication, does it really the reason why cancer occur? It might have some effect because when we talk about DNA, it’s about the basic of the cell itself. So, when there’s a flaw in replication it might affected the cell tissue to become mutated and might lead to cancer as well.
IV. Various Cause of Cancer
Why does cancer happened? Well, there is a lot of factor leading to cancer. But there are some major factor that have take a big part in causing cancer to human. Major causes why cancer happened in human is because of consumption of tobacco and was found in 1964 as the biggest factor that lead to lung cancer by US surgeon (Anand et al., 2008). Other big factor that proved caused of cancer is a lot of alcohol drinking.
Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, and there is some evidence of an association with pancreatic cancer (The American Cancer Society, 2011).
Radiation risked human to cancer. That comes with the fact that one of the most common cancer is caused by radiation, it could be because of some common radiation in example UV (ultraviolet) light, X-ray, etc.
Exposure to UV radiation...