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Essay For National Peace Essay Contest

1528 words - 7 pages

The fall of the Soviet Union ushered in the era democracy. The world has seen, since then, many countries overthrow their old governmental structures in favor of democracy. However, for some countries this is only a dream, because sustainable peace requires not just a reform of government but a reform of all agencies in any way connected to the government. One major area that must be reformed in order for a democracy to thrive is the Security Sector. The best way to affect sustainable peace through security sector reform is to allow the people of a country to reform their security sector with aid from or based on a more experienced democratic power this can be seen through two cases: the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Romania.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo is an example of a political transference to a democracy. However, this transference was not necessarily peaceful. Congo experienced decades of politics bolstered by Marxist-Leninist rhetoric. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Congolese moderated their economic and political views until in 1992 the Congo completed the transition to a multi-party democracy. However, the Congolese democracy faced several trials in the years 1993, 1994 and 1997. In November 1992, the President dissolved the National Assembly and called for new elections in May 1993. Unfortunately, the elections in May were disputed. This dispute touched of a violent civil unrest in June and again in November. In February 1994 the risk of large-scale insurrection subsided by the acceptance of the decisions of the international board of arbiters about the election. In 1997, as the presidential election approached tensions arose between the Lissouba and Sassou Nguesso camps. In May, a visit by Sassou Nguesso to Joachim Yhombi-Opango’s political stronghold led to an outbreak of violence between their supporters. On June 5, 1997, government forces surrounded Sassou Nguesso’s home in an attempt to arrest Pierre Aboya and Engobo Bonaventure, who had been implicated in the earlier violence. Fighting broke out between Sassou Nguesso’s Cobras and government forces. This ignited a four-month conflict that destroyed/damaged much of Brazzaville. Sassou Nguesso’s rebels received support from Angola with about 1,000 Angolan tanks and troops and from a sympathetic French government. On October 16, these forces took Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. Lissouba fled the capital his soldiers surrounded and the citizens began looting. Yhombi-Opango a leader of the Presidential Majority and a supporter of Lissouba fled into exile in Cote d’Ivoire and France. Sassou Nguesso declared himself president and named a 33-member government. In January of 1998, the Sassou Nguesso regime held a National Forum for Reconciliation. The Forum, tightly controlled by the governmental regime, decided upon elections held in about 3 years, elected a transition advisory legislature, and announced a constitutional convention finalizing a draft...

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