CHAPTER THREE: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
bCHAPTER THREE: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
�� Explain the importance of nonverbal communication as a message-sending system
�� Categorize and discuss the origins of nonverbal messages
�� State and explain the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication
�� List and illustrate the categories of nonverbal communication
�� Analyze the role of culture in the development and use of nonverbal communication
I. Nonverbal Communication: Messages that people exchange beyond the words
II. Sources of Nonverbal Signs
3. Gestics: The study of body movements through gestures, which give information regarding people's status, mood, cultural affiliations, and self perception.
a. Speech independent gestures are not tied to speech.
b. Emblems are nonverbal acts that have a direct verbal translation or dictionary definition.
c. Emblems tend to be culturally specific.
(1). Illustrators are kinesic acts that accompany speech that are used to aid in the description of what is being said or trace the direction of speech.
(2). Affect displays are facial expressions that show emotions and feelings.
(3). Regulators maintain and control the flow of communication between two or more people.
(4). Adaptors regulate a situation.
4. Haptics is the study of touch in communication.
5. Body Synchrony includes posture, walk, stance.
6. Artifactics is the study of body adornment like clothing, make-up, and jewelry.
B. Physical Characteristics
1. We are usually drawn to people who we find attractive.
a. The Halo Effect - More attractive people are given more attractive qualities, like high intelligence and good job performance.
b. The Devil Effect - Less attractive people are given less attractive qualities, like less intelligence and poor job performance.
a. Short men are perceived to have less power and earn less in salaries.
b. Women who are too tall are ungainly and those who are shorter are treated with less respect.
C. Proxemics-spatial communication is how people use and perceive their social and
D. Culture and Space
1. Cultures can be distinguished by the distances at which members interact and how often members touch.
2. Contact cultures are those that are characterized by tactile modes of communication.
3. Noncontact cultures use less physical touch.
4. Space distances allows for the understanding of space as it relates to culture.
5. Intimate distance is characterized by direct physical contact to about 18 inches away.
6. Personal space, or a comfort bubble, is 18 inches to four feet, is used by most European Americans in conversations with others.
7. Social distance, which is four feet to 12 feet zone, is used during business transactions and casual social exchanges.
8. Public space is dictated by 12 to 25 feet of space.
E. Small group ecology is the physical placement of members of a small group in relation to one another and how it affects their behavior.
F. Paravocalics-vocal communication studies the vocal effects that accompany words, but not the actual words themselves.
1. This includes rate, volume, pauses, pitch, and stress of sounds, all of which have meaning.
2. Vocal cues can give clues to the age, sex, and status of a speaker.
G. Chronemics studies the way people handle and structure their time.
1. Some cultures relate to a circular phenomenon, where there is a no...