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Essay & Research Project #2

1019 words - 4 pages

Describe the properties of acids with regard to their reactions with metals, bases and carbonates.Acids taste sour, conducts electricity and has a pH lower than 7. Therefore, it turns red if universal indicator is added and turns blue litmus paper red. Strong acids with a pH of 1 or 2, contain more hydrogen ions and are very corrosive while weak acids with a pH of 5 or 6 contain less hydrogen ions therefore, they are not that corrosive.When an acid is added with a metal, salt and hydrogen are produced. Hydrogen, which quickly bubbles off during the reaction is displaced by the metal added. The bubbles will stop when all the acid has been used up.When an acid is added with a base, salt and water are produced.When an acid is added with a carbonate, salt, water and carbon dioxide are produced.2. Explain the test for carbonate ions using dilute hydrochloric acid and limewater.Carbonate ions can be tested by adding dilute hydrochloric acid and putting the given off gas into limewater. If carbonate ions are present, limewater will turn milky or cloudy because when an acid and carbonate react, it gives of carbon dioxide, which turns limewater cloudy. For example:Sodium Carbonate + Hydrochloric acid → Sodium Chloride + Water + Carbon DioxideNa2CO3 + 2 HCl → 2 NaCl + H2O + CO2The collected carbon dioxide will therefore turn limewater cloudy. Limewater is a common name for saturated calcium hydroxide solution, Ca(OH)2. When carbon dioxide is added to limewater, water and calcium carbonate (chalk) are produced. In limewater, if carbon dioxide are present, a white precipitation of calcium carbonate (chalk) will form.Limewater + Carbon dioxide → Calcium Carbonate + WaterCa(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O3. Describe how solutions are acidic, alkaline or neutral in terms of the pH scale.The pH scale tells us the number of hydrogen ions in the solution. If the pH number shows a number less than 7, it is acidic, if the pH number is exactly 7, it is neutral and if the pH number shows a number more than 7, it is alkaline.4. Explain the meaning of the term exothermic reaction and that when acids react with alkalis the temperature of the solution increases.Exothermic reaction is when a chemical reaction gives out heat (thermal energy) like combustion. When an acid is added to an alkali, the temperature will rise until the point where there are equal amounts of H+ and OH- ions in the solution. The temperature will rise because as neutralization is taken place and while a salt and water are formed, heat is also produced and given off. Therefore, the temperature of the solution will rise as the reaction continues. Soon when the H+ and OH- ions are equal in the solution, the temperature would stop rising and would start dropping.5. Describe that during the neutralization reactions, hydrogen ions combine with hydroxide ions to form water molecules.Negative hydroxide ions attract positive hydrogen ions which creates a covalent bond to join into a stable water...

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