This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Essay Topic 5. Neuromuscular Junction As Site Of Disease Process. And Formation Of Nuromuscular Junction.

3184 words - 13 pages

Essay topic 5.5. The neuromuscular junction as a site of disease processProteins involved in formation of the neuromuscular junctionThe neuromuscular junction is a specialized junction, where a motor nerve forms its synaptic terminal with a muscle fibre, one of many fibres that make up a whole muscle. The mature neuromuscular junction is composed of three types of cells - a motor nerve terminal, a muscle fibre and a Schwann cell covering the junction. All three of these cells are highly differentiated and specialized for their functions (Kandel 2000, p. 1089).The events that occur during the formation of the neuromuscular junction have been extensively studied and are the most comprehensively understood of any nerve-to-target cell contact.Prior to formation of the synapse all three components of the neuromuscular junction develop and acquire identities independently. The muscle cells are derived from the mesoderm and migrate from the dermomyotomal portion of the somite. Motoneurons migrate from the ventricular zone of the neural tube to a ventral-lateral location before axons grow out of the spinal cord. Schwann cells are glial cells, which insulate the axons outside of the spinal cord, they are derived from neural crest cells and associate with axons from the somite onwards to the peripheral target.At the time of the first axons reaching the developing muscle, the muscle fibres are myoblasts that have just fused to form multinucleated myotubes, there is no evidence to suggest that motor neurons prefer certain site on the developing myotube or that there is a predetermined site for the formation of the synapse, on the contrary, synapse formation can occur on most, if not all of the myotube surface (Lichtman et al in Zigmond et al 2000, pp. 547-8). Acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are found uniformly dispersed over the surface of the myotube until the nerve approaches the myotube. As the nerve approaches the myotube a protein known as agrin, which is synthesized in the motor neuron, is transported down the axon to the synaptic cleft where it is released from the nerve terminal, here it is deposited in the synaptic basal lamina. The major components of the basal lamina are laminins, which are made up of α, β and γ chains; it forms a continuous non-myelin layer over the nerve terminal and is a potent promoter of axon outgrowth. The basal lamina is present (at least components of the basal lamina are present) prior to the arrival of the nerve and is rich in the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme which catalyses the breakdown of acetylcholine (ACh) the major neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction.Agrin acts through receptors in the plasma membrane of the muscle fibre, it brings about the localization of the AChR to the region below the nerve terminal, the aggregation of AChR is essential for the development of the neuromuscular junction. Agrin also regulates the distribution of other synaptic proteins, such as AChE,...

Find Another Essay On Essay topic 5. Neuromuscular junction as site of disease process. AND Formation of Nuromuscular junction.

An expository essay written on the topic of religious tolerance. Account is based on fact and not author's opinion. Simply entitled as "Religious Tolerance: the Facts"

1481 words - 6 pages core values are established as evidenced in the previous example., largely the most objective and fair site about religious intolerance on the Internet, says, "It seems that the media often treats clergy and other religious leaders differently from other people. Some surveys show that perhaps 40% of men commit adultery. However, when a religious leader does it, his/her moral lapse is given great exposure - even to being

Our Understanding of Sexuality and Family Formation

1785 words - 7 pages Our Understanding of Sexuality and Family Formation The investigations in the determinants of gender and sexuality are ongoing; some are biologically orientated while others believe that they are socially constructed. This essay will discuss the idea that our understanding of sexuality and gender is linked to our understanding of family formations. It will highlight the diversities and the relationships of sexuality

essay of the essay of the essay topic - uni - essay

2372 words - 10 pages Lit108 assessment item 2 Essay 2 1. The Beggar in The Beggar’s Opera says: “Had the Play remained, as I at first intended, it would have carried a most excellent Moral. ’Twould have shown that the lower sort of people have their vices in a degree as well as the rich: and that they are punished for them.” Consider the Beggar’s statement in the context of the play as a whole. The Play, The Beggars Opera by Gay, explores themes of vice, virtue and

Formation of United Nations and Canada's Involvement

879 words - 4 pages September 1945: Gouzenko AffairOn Sept. 5, 1945, just after the end of the Second World War, a Russian cipher clerk named Igor Gouzenko (pictured left) fled the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa with 109 documents proving the existence of a Soviet spy ring in Canada. His revelations reverberated throughout the world and helped to ignite the Cold War. Some of those revelations reported that results of atomic bomb research might have been leaked to the

Topic: Cell Free Plasma DNA as a Predictor of Outcome in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

555 words - 2 pages ’t any residual cells left behind.2. The DNA extracted produced the following sequence: forward primer 5’-GCA CCT….GAA-3’. Reverse primer 5’CAC CAA……TCA-3’ as well as a single labeled fluorescent MGB probe 5’-FAM-TCT….MGB-NFQ. (Minor grove binding molecule and Nonfluorescent quencher molecule respectively).Precision of Data:The data was ran 8times in multiple duplicates to ensure precision of the

Cultural Determinants Are Key to the Process of Determining Health Problems and Disease Causes

1333 words - 6 pages During the introductory part of the story Kidder, the author, meets Dr. Paul Farmer and we learn from the beginning much of Dr. Farmer’s character. Throughout the book we find Farmer as the heart, both strong and devoted to the long defeat. His caring heart and sacrificial lifestyle has led him to Haiti, Peru, and Russia to eradicate poverty by providing discovery medicine to fight infectious disease. His main focus was towards Haiti; as we

The Formation of Cultures

2462 words - 10 pages , Christian Scholz and Meryl Louis have their own explanation of culture and its formation as follows: • Schein’s Steps of culture formation in groups -People form groups seeking need satisfaction. They bring goals, values and even hopes to the group process and endeavour to find a situation in which, for the most part, they can achieve what they want. Schein has an excellent treatment of the steps of group formation and growth. The group formation and

Formation of Planets

1098 words - 5 pages the Universe was formed about 14 billion years ago by a Big Bang, an explosion that also created protons, neutrons, and electrons. This report will describe the five theories and processes involved in the formation of the solar system. Planets are formed by the process of new layers on top of existing layers. The pieces that bounds to become a planet gradually grow larger in a process known as accretion. Planetesimals and protoplanets are the main

Formation of Personality

2212 words - 9 pages commonality among human beings despite differences. Similar to Freud, Mead finds formation of the conscience a developmental process. The “generalized other” is necessary for society to be organized and function properly. Herbert Marcuse critiques the structural-functional approach to sociology. Rather, his analysis explains how advanced industrial societies have evolved to become one-dimensional. One-dimensionality is defined by the lack of

The Formation of Hurricanes

1546 words - 6 pages The Formation of Hurricanes Hurricanes begin as tropical storms over the warm moist waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans near the equator. (Near the Philippines and the China Sea, hurricanes are called typhoons.) As the moisture evaporates it rises until enormous amounts of heated moist air are twisted high in the atmosphere. The winds begin to circle counterclockwise north of the equator or clockwise south of the

Formation of Negative Perception

1682 words - 7 pages Formation of Perceptions Negative Perspectives After a critical analysis on the data for the two main issue that the programme present, we now come to the negative perspective of episode 2 as a whole. There are superficial and artificial presentation and also formation of negative perception towards this two issue. Firstly, for superficial representation, Tien has only been a cleaning worker for 2 days and live in the cage home for one night

Similar Essays

Life And Death Is Only A Junction

2065 words - 8 pages pouring rain of a typical London winter muttering under my breath and getting alarmed looks. It's HARD for me! I thought. Ya, when you were there it was hard, now it's torture to the point of inanity. Everyone called me B.B, Baby Bells. My real name is Isabelle but, compared to my sister, as everyone always did, I was a baby. Becky was 19, tall, fit, smart and she had brown hair that was cut short, lots of freckles and skin that

The First Major Battle Of The Civil War Was Fought In Virginia, Near The Manassas, Virginia Railway Junction, After Which The Battle Is Called .........Ect

631 words - 3 pages 17,000 men over Bull Run, meant much hard work and hard driving. And yet, as we have seen, all this fell entirely short of what was needed for success. Rapidity of action was essential, and at no moment, at no point, did McDowell show any tendency of the sort, rather the contrary.The subsequent action of the Confederate authorities contains an official verdict on the generals. J. E. Johnston was left in charge of the main Confederate army at Manassas. Jackson was promoted to an independent command in the Shenandoah; while Beauregard was sent out West and placed under A. S. Johnston, with whom in the following year he fought the battle of Shiloh against Grant.

Critical Web Site Elements And Web Site Review Of Image Stream.Com Site

859 words - 3 pages value in the mind of customers and prospective customers. The site needs to act as a multi-functional tool, acting at once to excite prospective buyers, market the company itself, provide technical solutions and information for customers and sales channel partners, and encourage visitors to return to the ImageStream site for answers and information. A Web site must provide intuitive navigation with text and non-text links to key sections and a clean

This Essay Is About The Pros And Cons Of Cloning. This Was Done As An Assignment And Got A 5/5

545 words - 2 pages defects/diseases, for example like diabetes.Along with medical advantages there are emotional advantages to parents who have lost a child and now can clone a new one.Another pro would be economic - both to the people it provides jobs to and also that scientists would be able to use cloning for a mass production of animals like cows for example to produce more products like: beef, cheese and milk. So they wouldn't have to use as much natural