CHAPTER THREE: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
bCHAPTER THREE: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
After reading this chapter, students should be able to:
�� Explain the importance of nonverbal communication as a message-sending system
�� Categorize and discuss the origins of nonverbal messages
�� State and explain the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication
�� List and illustrate the categories of nonverbal communication
�� Analyze the role of culture in the development and use of nonverbal communication
I. Nonverbal Communication: Messages that people exchange beyond the words
II. Sources of Nonverbal Signs
A. Neurological Programs
1. Innate neurological programs: automatic nonverbal reactions to stimuli with which we are born.
B. Cultural and Intercultural Programs: behavior that is reflective of the culture from
which they are learned.
III. Emotional influences on nonverbal communication.
A. Emotions have a direct effect on people's personal territory and their resulting nonverbal responses.
B. Outside influences, such as drugs and alcohol, can affect people's nonverbal
IV. Verbal and Nonverbal Relationships
A. Substituting Relationship: Use of a nonverbal response instead of a verbal one.
B. Complementing Relationship: Nonverbal behavior accompanies a verbal message.
C. Conflicting Relationship: When nonverbal actions conflict with the verbal message.
D. Accenting Relationship: The nonverbal action occurs with and emphasizes the verbal behavior.
V. Categories of Nonverbal Communication
A. Kinesics (body movement): The study of communication through the body and its
1. Facsics: The study of how the face communicates; facial expressions.
2. Ocalics: Study of the eyes. Pupilometrics: pupils dilate when the eyes are focused on a pleasurable object but contract when focused on a unpleasurable one.
3. Gestics: The study of body movements through gestures, which give information regarding people's status, mood, cultural affiliations, and self perception.
a. Speech independent gestures are not tied to speech.
b. Emblems are nonverbal acts that have a direct verbal translation or dictionary definition.
c. Emblems tend to be culturally specific.
(1). Illustrators are kinesic acts that accompany speech that are used to aid in the description of what is being said or trace the direction of speech.
(2). Affect displays are facial expressions that show emotions and feelings.
(3). Regulators maintain and control the flow of communication between two or more people.
(4). Adaptors regulate a situation.
4. Haptics is the study of touch in communication.
5. Body Synchrony includes posture, walk, stance.
6. Artifactics is the study of body adornment like clothing, make-up, and jewelry.