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Esssay On The History Of Islam I Had To Write For Ap Mod World

1549 words - 6 pages

Jeffrey Boateng 10/22/04 Ap World HistoryBarnhartThe Spread Of IslamThe religion of Islam is a very unique monotheistic religion that is closely related to Judaism and Christianity. The word Islam means "submission to God" and Muslim means "someone who submits". Muslims follow the teachings of Muhammad, the Prophet. Muslims believe Muhammad was the last of the prophets behind Abraham, Moses, and Jesus thus linking the religions together. The Quran the Holy book of Islam itself tells of the prophets: "Remember, we gave Moses the Book and sent him many an apostle; and to Jesus, son of Mary, We gave clear evidence of the truth, reinforcing him with divine grace" (23:49-50). Muslims believe they worship the same God as Jews and Christians. Muhammad gave the Arabs the idea of umma a unified community which was bonded by religion. Through the umma Muhammad applied the law of God. At firs Muhammad did not attract many people and was forced to flee to Medina in hijra(immigration) in 622. In Medina the Islam started to gain followers and by Muhammad's death in 632 had all the Bedouin tribes. By 642 The Muslims were able to defeat the Persian Empire at Nihawand. By the beginning of the eleventh century Islam's influence was as far as northern India. There are many reasons for the rapid spread of Islam. Muslim historians say the victories were thanks to God. The Arabs did believe in the jihad(holy war) so they were very loyal and felt religiously involved something their enemies could not match. Conflicts between the Byzantine and Sasanid empires allowed Muslims to advance. One example is the conquest of Syria, which was controlled by the Byzantine Empire. The Muslims saw that control of this area was vital in order to control nomadic tribes in the deserts and, be close to sites important to the faith like Jerusalem. The Muslim military was very organized leaders had almost complete control of there troops by assuring regular pay, fixed salaries, and battlefield treasure. Also Muslims established camp cities in territories they conquered in which they used to later expand the empire. Then Islam Empire, which rose so quickly, was not able to stay together for very long.When Muhammad died in 632 he left a umma with no leader: in his place a caliph which means leadear, succesor, and deputy was elected by his followers. Abu Bakr was this caliph but he only ruled for two years. He was followed by Umar, Uthman, and Ali. Uthaman's enemies accused him of using his power to put his family ahead and he was assassinated in 656, Ali succeed him. Uthmans' cousin Mu'awiya did not recognize Ali as caliph and a civil ensued which left Ali assassinated and Mu'awiya in charge. From then on the position of caliph went from an elective one to dynastic like one. The death of Ali left a spilt in the Muslim world. The supporters of Ali believed because of Ali's blood tie to Muhammad and his title of imam (prayer leader) he had been the designated successor they became know as the...

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