By reading through the text of extraction, in a nutshell it implies the dissatisfaction borne by the receptionist due to working as a machine not as a human. According to the cited text, the receptionist has innate notion that she was a cog of wheel of conceptual machine. What is the origin of this dissatisfaction? Philosopher Carl Marx stated that emerged because of estranged labour and alienation from the world. He formed his conceptualization of estrangement of labour which helped to identify what caused the dissatisfaction of the labour.
Karl Marx believed that the society is divided into classes as propertied and propertyless; everything is considered in terms of utility or commodity and price in the capitalism. Marx recognized the labour is external to the individual because it is not an important part of his being. Therefore, intrinsically individual does not exist and confirm herself in her work itself. As a result of this the individual, like receptionist in this case denies herself, feels unhappy and miserable, and cannot develop mental or physical energy freely. Actually, she is hostile to herself. She can feel herself when she is not working, not she is working. She can feel she has a home when she is not working where as she feels homeless when she is working. All in all, her labour is not volunteered but coerced. It means and when she is working she feel at it is not real satisfaction of the worker other than just attempts to satisfy needs outside it.
Within the perimeter of external labour, man alienates himself and it seems some kind of self-sacrifice and self-humiliation. Eventually the worker sensed that his spontaneous activities possessed or disposed by others not by him, that is the loss of worker himself. What the result means here that the worker acted freely when needed to fulfill his basic need such as eating, drinking, sleeping, dwelling and having sex. Those are considered as animal function by Marx in his Manuscript. That is the reason the receptionists feels that no longer she is not human but a piece of machine.
Marx found four ways of estrangement of labour prevailing in the society under capitalism in following practical manner. Those are concisely described as follows.
1. Estrangement of worker from what he produces. Even though the worker produced, the worker is too small in comparison to the product that they created and they do not have right to possess it or use it. What the worker produced is appropriated by capitalists and therefore the worker is exploited. In the text of the question, the receptionist felt the rules were structured and her creativity is harnessed by the others, capitalists. She lost her natural creativity forever .Therefore she is deprived from getting...