Ethnography Essay

1497 words - 6 pages

The qualitative research method is not a new concept, it has been developed more than a century, and the concept of qualitative has a number of approaches to research i.e. in the social sciences (Flick, 2007). It has a long and exciting history in the different field like social sciences, health sciences, and humanities (Given, 2008). “Qualitative research/methods” is not a uniform set of techniques… but a”complex amalgamation of metaphors, paradigms, techniques, and procedures”… that”are united by their non-statistical orientation (Prasad, 2005; p. 3). Between 1920 and 1930, Chicago school of sociology classified that qualitative research is a study of individual and group in social sciences. According to Kaplan & Maxwell (1997) researcher always take help from the qualitative research method to be aware of people, socially and culturally. In early stages, the qualitative research methods were beginning to causing the practice of human study; there were two main groups one in sociology with the “Chicago School” qualitative study for group life and second anthropology traditions of field work (Denzin and Lincoln, 1994). However, Silverman (1993), as cited in Bryman and Bell (2011), argues that recently the qualitative research strategy has been used in testing theories which reflects the growing maturity of this strategy. Those who want to apply qualitative methods of study in their research like business research, managerial practice, public policy and organizations there is a very high risk of uncertainty in using methods that researcher appears to belong sometime it is outside the discipline such as social, anthropology and communication studies (Prasad, 2005).

Qualitative research refers to descriptive data such as interviews, documents and participant observation to understand and explain social phenomena (Meyers, 1997). In other words, the qualitative method emphasizes on social processes and not social structures and refers to a “mixture of the rational, explorative and intuitive where the skills and experience of the researcher play an important role in the analysis of data” (Ghauri and Grønhaug, 2005; p. 110). Qualitative research mostly focuses on the inductive approach to make the relationship between research and theory as well as the generation of theories (Bryman and Bell, 2011). Moreover, it emphasizes on meaningfulness of the study and thus is not impressionistic (Taylor and Bogdan, 1998). It is a way to find out how individuals perceive their social world and consists of “viewing social reality as a constantly shifting emergent property of individuals’ creation” (Bryman and Bell, 2011, p. 27). This means that a researcher in this strategy mostly looks at the social world through the eyes of people and interprets it from the perspective of people being studied. As foreshadowed briefly, qualitative methods tend to generate theory rather than testing it (Ibid). However, Silverman (1993), as cited in Bryman and Bell (2011),...

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