This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Ethylene Genetics Essay

7685 words - 31 pages

Abstract Hormones play an important role in plant growth and development. Ethylene is one such hormone and the past decade has seen major components of the ethylene response pathway in plants being identified and characterized. Ethylene regulates responses at a number of levels and molecular genetic analysis of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana has identified a number of gentic loci that encode proteins involved in the ethylene response. Elements of the pathway, which have been characterized include: the two-component-like receptors (ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, ERS2 & EIN4), the Raf-like kinase (CTR1), the transcription factor (EIN3) and the ethylene response element binding proteins (EREBPs). A linear model is now in place, which links all these elements together and demonstrates how they interact and ultimately how ethylene signaling operates.INTRODUCTION Ethylene, a simple olefin has been shown to display a role in how plants respond to a diverse array of environmental signals. Throughout a plants life cycle ethylene affects fruit ripening, germination, cell expansion and elongation, senescence, leaf abscission and even sex determination. All of these responses are controlled by various signal transduction pathways, which ethylene regulates. The ethylene biosynthetic pathway often referred to as the "Yang Cycle" has been very well characterized. Aminocyclo-propane-1-carboxy acid (ACC) oxidase and ACC synthase are the two enzymes, which regulate the cycle. The genes responsible for these enzymes have also been cloned in many species of plant. (Grierson et al, 1991 & Van der Straeten et al, 1990 respectively) A bioassay known as the Triple Response has been used to perform a large number of screens, which have provided the identification of genes, which are involved in the ethylene response pathway (Guzman & Ecker, 1990). First demonstrated in pea seedlings by Neljubow in 1901 (Johnson & Ecker, 1998) which when grown in the dark but in the presence of ethylene they exhibit the morphological characteristics of the triple response, which are, inhibition of hypocotyl and root elongation, radial swelling and an exaggerated apical hook. The screens as mentioned above have been the basis of illuminating the elements involved in ethylene perception, signalling and response. During the past decade a huge amount of progress has been made in the genetic dissection of the pathway. The isolation of mutants that either display an ethylene insensitive phenotype or a constitutive ethylene response along with epistasis analysis (determine the order of gene products action) has led to quite a good understanding of what the ethylene response pathway is composed of (Figure 1). Ethylene is initially perceived at the plasma membrane by a family of ethylene receptors, which are similar to two-component histidine-kinase receptors found in bacteria. Members of this family include ETR 1, ETR 2, ERS 1, ERS 2 and EIN 4. The signal, involving a...

Find Another Essay On Ethylene Genetics

Nanotechnology: The Future of Medicine Essay

2203 words - 9 pages a targeted chemotherapy drug involved the attachment of ethylene glycol molecules to nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were to deliver therapeutic drugs to the cells of cancer tumours, and prevent white blood cells from distinguishing them as foreign materials. This would allow the nanoparticles to circulate the bloodstream long enough to attach to tumours. However, researchers at the University of California believe that this could also be

When the Bubble Burst Essay

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

phase diagram

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work of Art

1890 words - 8 pages Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art

Enlightenment Thought in New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages In this essay I will be looking at how the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment have shaped New Zealand Education. I will also be discussing the perennial tension of local control versus central control of education, and how this has been affected by the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement, which beginnings of were marked by the Glorious Revolution in Britain

Psychological Egoism Theory

2240 words - 9 pages The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and

How Celtic Folkore has Influenced My Family

1587 words - 6 pages Every family has a unique background that influences the way they live and interact with other people. My parents, who emigrated from Ireland to the States with my three brothers in 1989, brought over their own Celtic folklore and traditions that have helped shaped the way our family operates and lives. One aspect of folklore that has helped shape my family dynamic is the Celtic cross—both its background and what role it has played in our lives

Julia Margaret Cameron

1406 words - 6 pages At a time when women were looked upon as being homemakers, wives, mothers and such the late 1850's presented a change in pace for one woman in specific. Photography was discovered in 1826 and soon after the phenomenon of photography was being experimented with and in turn brought new and different ways of photo taking not only as documenting real time, but also conceptualizing a scene in which an image would be taken. Julia Margaret Cameron will

Evaluation of School Improvement

1403 words - 6 pages The evaluation process should be progressive to incorporate overall planning, implement changes, which contribute to success. In order to focus on school climate and norms, the evaluation design must include the students, instructions, and outcomes to improve communication and building-level concerns to be address in this response. School Climate and Social Norms The school principal, other staff leaders, and personnel set the tone and the

Case Study: The Benefits of Animal Testing

1757 words - 7 pages Nine year old Amy has already had a rough start in life. She was born with an abnormal heart that hinders her everyday activities. Amy is unable to keep up with kids her own age because she often tires out easily. As a consequence, she has very little friends and is often alone. Amy is forced to take different medications everyday just to survive. Amy’s life consists of medicine, doctors, and constant hospital visits. However, Amy is due for a

Myth and Magic: Realism in "One Hundred Years of Solitude"

1531 words - 6 pages “He enjoyed his grandmother's unique way of telling stories. No matter how fantastic or improbable her statements, she always delivered them as if they were the irrefutable truth” (Wikipedia, 2011). Experiences are particular instances of one personally encountering or undergoing something and in these moments of time life changes for the best or the worst and memories are formed. These recollections such as riding your first bicycle, going to

Similar Essays

Calgene Case Study On How To Change Customer Perceptions

1374 words - 5 pages vegetables have soft skins and can easily be damaged during handling and processing. They can also rot in the time taken to ship and get them to the shops.In order to ensure easier handling and longer shelf-life, vegetables and fruits are harvested when still green and then artificially ripened with ethylene gas. The drawback of doing so is that the artificially ripened fruits and vegetables do not have the taste and flavour of their naturally

Genetically Engineered Food Essay

928 words - 4 pages FDA. Traditional tomatoes must be picked when green to maintain their firmness during transportation and then later sprayed with ethylene, a natural ripening agent. Flavr Savr tomatoes were created to have firmer skin, allowing them to ripen on the vine longer thus producing a better tasting tomato. In 1997 the tomato was pulled from the market because Calgene, the creators of the Flavr Savr could no longer afford transportation methods of the

Agricultural Genetic Engineering: Genetically Modified Foods, Arguments Of Both Proponents And Opponents And A Mediated Solution

1103 words - 4 pages engineering is simply an extension of Mendelian genetics and crossbreeding; that is, gene modification is just a quicker way of obtaining and producing a desired trait rather than waiting for countless generations of breeding. With genetic engineering, producers can increase productivity and reduce crop failure by obtaining the gene known for contributing to the longevity of one plant and inserting it in another plant (Whitman). Agricultural

Agricultural Bioengineering Essay

2222 words - 9 pages Agricultural bioengineering is basically using genetics altering technology to, in a laboratory, create newer and better versions of the plant and animal products already in existence. Genetic engineering can be used for many different things. Cloning, creating entirely new species and manipulating already existing species are a few. Each of these are examples of controversial issues, however, engineering of foods to be consumed by humans is one