Though motherhood is frequently a noble and gratifying occurrence, many impoverished women associated it with suffering, infirmity and death. Some significant etiological factors for maternal morbidity and mortality include hemorrhage, infection, obstructed labor, risky abortions, and indirect causes, such as malaria and HIV. With a growing knowledge of sterilization, and advent of antibiotics, the Global North experienced a major drop in maternal mortality and morbidity. In 2009, the US maternal mortality ratio was 24/per 100,000 live births, 10 times lower than global averages, 260. Off the US coast, the island nation of Haiti’s maternal mortality ratio is 300 per 100,000 live births. In Africa, Liberia has a maternal mortality rate of 990/per 100,000 live births in 2009. The majority of maternal deaths are preventable. Indicators such as having several children, being uneducated, very young or old, or enduring gender discrimination, amplify the phenomenon of maternal morbidity and mortality.
In 2008, 358,000 women died due to complications associated with pregnancy and childbirth. Most of these preventable deaths occurred in developing countries, with a substantial number occurring in Africa. In addition, when a mother dies from pregnancy related causes their children who survive are 10 times more likely to die within two years than those with two living parents. Furthermore, many women who survive childbirth experience serious illness, injury, or disability caused by pregnancy-related complications. Maternal morbidity includes uterine prolapse, pelvic inflammatory disease, vescio-vaginal fistulas, urinary and fecal incontinence, infertility and discomfort during intercourse among other lasting effects of pregnancy-related problems.
Roughly, 43 million women give birth at home every year deprived of the assistance or welfare provided by a skilled delivery attendant. These women often live in rural, isolated areas with minimal access to suitable healthcare systems and transportation resources. Every woman deserves a skilled attendant to care for her during her pregnancy and childbirth but in many developing countries the infrastructure and resources in human capital to support this strategy do not exist. Consequently, women often delay choosing to acquire care, in reaching suitable health facilities, and receiving ample care once at the health facilities. Here social structures and regional infrastructure relates to illness initiation and maternal complications. Thus, any intervention must be Biosocial, and refer to the theory of the social construction of reality.
The biomedical model of sickness is not the same perception in the developing world. The view of illness is a construct of the society. Moreover, the social structure may have deeply entrenched gender inequalities, which aggravate the condition of maternal mortality. In some countries, women do not have the social status to make their own decisions regarding...